For the first time in the 1980s, Chuck Hull, an engineer and physicist, invented a 3D printing technology, also called additive manufacturing, as the process of manufacturing the material in a single layer.
Just like an inkjet printer adds individual ink points to create an image, the 3D printer adds material wherever you need it using the digital file.
Many traditional manufacturing processes involved cutting down on excess material, and this could lead to a waste of up to 30 pounds (13.6 kg) of material per weight, according to the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee.
In contrast, some 3D printing processes use about 98 percent of the raw material in the finished part, and this method can be used to make small components using plastics and metal powders, some experimenting with chocolate and other foods. as biomaterials that are similar to human cells.
3D printers have been sued to make everything from prosthetic limbs to robots, and the process follows these basic activities:
· Development of a 3D project using computer-aided design (CAD) software
· Preparing the printer, including refilling raw materials such as plastic, metal powders, and binding solutions.
· Start the printing process using the machine that builds the object.
· 3D printing processes may vary, but material extrusion is most often used and acts as a glue gun: the print media is heated until it is liquefied and ejected through the print nozzle.
· With digital file information, the design is divided into two-dimensional cross-sections to let the printer know where to place the material
· The nozzle is deposited in polymeric thin layers, often at a thickness of 0.1 mm (0.004 inches).
· The polymer solidifies quickly by bonding to the lower layer before the construction platform falls and the print head attaches another layer (depending on the object, the whole process may take a minute to a day).
· When printing is complete, each object needs a little post-processing, from removing the object from the platform to removing the support to remove excess powder.