GMO safety studies and sources of funding
See our information on GMO safety studies and funding sources.

It is partial A list of independently funded research on genetic engineering crops we have collected as part of GENEtic Engineering Risks Atlas (GENERA). About 1/3 of the research on genetic engineering risks comes from independent sources of funding.

  1. Powell M, Wheatley AO, Omoruyi F, Asemota HN, Williams NP, Tennant PF. 2009. The comparative effect of dietary transgene and papillomavirus on selected intestinal parameters in rat models. Transgenic research 19 (3): 511-8.
  2. Batista R, Saibo N, Lourenço T, Oliveira MM. 2008. Microarray analysis reveals that plant mutagens can cause more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion. PNAS 105 (9): 3640-5. (full text)
  3. Böhme H, Rudloff E, Schöne F, Schumann W, Hüther L, Flachowsky G. 2007. Evaluation of the nutritional value of genetically modified rape seed, which synthesizes high levels of medium chain fatty acids, including reactions of breeding pig production. Animal feed archives 61 (4): 308-16. 2007
  4. Fine MM, Lyons R, Powers S, Pastor GM, Edwards KJ, Holdsworth MJ, Shewry PR. 206. The effect of transgase on wheat grain transcripts is less than traditional cultivation. Plant Biotechnology Magazine 4 (4): 369-80.
  5. Brake DG, Thaler R, Evenson DP. 2004 Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize assessment for mouse testicular development with two parameter flow cytometry. Agricultural and food chemistry magazine. 52 (7): 2097-2102.
  6. Brake DG, Evenson DP. 2004. Generation study on glyphosate-tolerant soybean growth in fetal mice, postpartum period, puberty and adult testicular development. Food and chemical toxicology. 42 (1): 29-36.
  7. Atkinson HJ, Johnston KA, Robbins M. 2004. Prima facie evidence that phytotoxitin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk for human nutrition. Journal of Nutrition 134 (2): 431-434. (full text)
  8. Bakan B, Melcion D, Richard-Molard D, Cahagnier B. 2002. Fungal growth and Fusarium mycotoxin content in traditional maize corn and genetically modified maize cultivation in France and Spain. Agricultural and Food Chemistry Magazine 50 (4): 728-731.
  9. Aulrich K, Böhme H, Daenicke R, Halle I, Flachowsky G. 2001. Genetically modified feed for animal nutrition. Statement 1: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize for poultry, pig and ruminant feed. Archiv für Tierernährung (Fish Feed Archive) 54 (3): 183-195.
  10. Böhme H, Aulrich K, Daenicke R, Flachowsky G. 2001. Genetically modified animal feed. Notice 2: glufosinate tolerant sugar beet (root and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs. Archiv für Tierernährung (Animal Feed Archive) 54 (3): 197-207.
  11. Arencibia A, Gentinetta E, Cuzzoni E, Castiglione S, Kohl A, Vain P, Leech M, Christou P, Island F. 1998. Molecular analysis of plant genomes of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.), obtained by using particle bombardment or intact cell electroporation. Molecular Selection 4 (2): 99-109.
  12. Bub A, Möseneder J, Wenzel G, Reckiemmer G, Freedom K. 2008. Zeoxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified potatoes with zeaxanthin. European Journal of Feedingstuffs 47 (2): 99-103.
  13. Catchpole GS, Beckmann M, Enot DP, Mondhe M, Zywicki B, Taylor J, Hardy N, Smits A, King RD, Clock DB, Fiehn O, Draper J. 2005. Hierarchical metabolism proves a significant similarity of composition of genetically modified and conventional potatoes to crops . PNAS 102 (40): 14458-62. (full text) Metabolic analysis and statistical work was funded by the Food Standards Agency (London) as part of its G02006 project.
  14. Chambers PA, Duggan PS, Heritage J, Forbes JM. 2000. Antibiotic resistance marker gene fate in transgenic plant nutritional materials fed with chickens. Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Magazine 49 (1): 161-164. Novartis, formerly Ciba-Geigy, provided genetically modified maize seeds used in this study. This work was funded by the Food Standards Agency grant.
  15. Chen ZL, Gu H, Li Y, Su Y, Wu P, Jiang Z, Ming X, Tian J, Pan N, Qu LJ. 2003. Safety assessment of genetically modified sweet pepper and tomatoes. Toxicology 188 (2-3): 297-307.
  16. Cheng KC, Beaulieu J, Iquira E, Belzile FJ, Fortin MG, Strömvik MV. 2008. The effect of transgene on the expression of global genes in soybeans is in the range of natural variations in traditional varieties. Agricultural and Food Chemistry Magazine 56 (9): 3057-67.
  17. Chowdhury EH, Kuribara H, Hino A, Sultana P, Mikami O, Shimada N, Guruge KS, Saito M, Nakajima Y. 2003. Determination of Corn and DNA fragment and Cry1Ab protein gastrointestinal tract content in pigs fed genetically modified maize Bt11 Academy of Sciences 81 (10): 2546-2551. (full text)
  18. Chowdhury EH, Mikami O, Murata H, Sultana P, Shimada N, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamamoto S, Miyazaki S, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y. 2004. Feed of corn internal and recombinant gene calf feeding on genetically modified maize Bt11. Food Safety Magazine 67 (2): 365-370.
  19. Chowdhury EH, Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Sultana P, Miyazaki S, Yoshioka M, Yamanaka N, Hirai N, Nakajima Y. (2003). The detection of Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal tract, but not the visegular organs of genetically modified Bt11 calves. Vet Hum Toxicol. March 2003; 45 (2): 72-5.
  20. Chrenkova M, Sommer A, Ceresnakova Z, Nitrayova S, Prostredna M (2002) Evaluation of genetically modified corn maize feed in rats. Fish Feed Archive – Archiv fur Tierernahrung 56: 229-235 Institute for Animal Nutrition, Animal Breeding Research Institute, Hlohovská 2, 949 92 Nitra, Slovak Republic. [email protected]
  21. Cleveland, Thomas E, Patrick F Dowd, Anne E Desjardins, Deepak Bhatnagar, Peter J Cotty (2003). United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service Study on the Prevention of Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Pre-Harvesting in US Cultures, Pest Management Science Volume 59, Issue 6-7, Pages 629 – 642
  22. Daenicke R, Aulrich K, Flachowsky G. (1999). GMO for animal feed: Bt-maize feed characteristics … Mai: Fachzeitschrift uber Forschung, Produktionstechnik, Verwertung und Okonomik 135-137 Institute for the Study of Agricultural Animals, Federal Agricultural Research Center Braunschweig (FAL), Germany.
  23. Defernez M, Gunning YM, Parr AJ, Shepherd LV, Davies HV, Colquhoun IJ. (2004) J Agric Food Chem. October 6, 2004; 52 (20): 6075-85. Potatoes with genetically modified metabolism CMR and HPLC-UV profiling.
  24. Di Carli M, Villan ME, Renzone G, Nardi L, Pasquo A, Franconi R, Scaloni A, Benvenuto E, Desiderio A. (2008). Transgenic plant leaf protein analysis that expresses antiviral antibodies. J Proteome Res. December 19, 2008. [Epub ahead of print] Systemic analysis of protein profiles to detect any unexpected changes.
  25. Dowd, Patrick F (2000). Indirect reduction of ear shapes and associated mycotoxins in 2008 Bacillus thuringiensis Maize with controlled and open field conditions: utility and constraints, Journal of Economic Intolerance, Volume 1993, 6th edition (December 2000), 1669-1669. P. Bioactive Agents Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 1815 National Agricultural Exploration Research Center, Street, Peoria, IL 61604
  26. Dowd PF (2001) Biotic and abiotic factors limiting Bt corn efficiency by indirectly reducing mycotoxin levels in commercial fields. J Econ Ent 94 (5): 1067-1074.
  27. Dubouzet JG, Ishihara A, Matsuda F, Miyagawa H, Iwata H, Wakasa K. (2007) Integrated metabolite and transcriptomic analysis for high tryptophan rice expressing mutant antranilate synthase alpha subunit. J Exp Bot. 2007; 58 (12): 3309-21. Epub 2007 on September 4th.
  28. Duggan P. S. Chambers P.A. Heritage J. Forbes J.M. (2002). Free DNA survival encoding transgenic corn antibiotic resistance and DNA transformation activity in sheep saliva, sheep liquid fluid, and silage sewage. FEMS microbial. Lett 191, 71-77.
  29. Enot DP Manfred Beckmann, David Overy and John Draper (2006) Forecasting the Interpretation of Metabolic Models Based on the Biological Compatibility of Behavior, Potential Identities and Explanatory Signals PNAS October 3, 2006 Vol. 103 (40): 14865-14870
  30. Ewen SWB, Pusztai A (1999). The effect of the diet containing genetically modified potatoes emitting Galanthus nivalis lectin on the small intestine of the rat. Lancet 354: 1353-1354
  31. Finamore A, Roselli M, Britti S, Monastra G, Ambra R, Turrini A, Mengheri E. (2008) Intestinal and Peripheral Immune System Response to MON810 Corn Injection in the Abdomen and Old Mice. J Agrican Food Chem. November 14, 2008 [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19007233
  32. Flachovsky G, Halle I, Aulrich K Long-term feed with Bt-maize is a ten-generation study with quails. Arch Nutr. December 2005, 59 (6): 449-51. Agricultural Livestock Research Institute, Federal Agricultural Research Center, Braunschweig, Germany. [email protected] see also (REVIEW) Flachowsky G, Chesson A, Aulrich K. Animal feed with genetically modified plants.
  33. Gregersen PL, Brinch-Pedersen H, Holm PB (2005) Microgranule-based comparative analysis of gene expression profiles during grain development in transgenic and wild-type wheat. Transgene Rez December 2005, 14 (6): 887-905.
  34. Gizzarelli F, Corinti S, Barletta B, Iacovacci P, Brunetto B, Butteroni C, Afferni C, Onori R, Miraglia M, Panzini G, Di Felice G, Tinghino R. (2006) Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified soybean protein extract mice model with oral allergens specific sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy. February 2006; 36 (2): 238-48.
  35. Halle, I., K. Aulrich and G. Flachowsky. Feeding genetically modified maize of genetically modified quail for four generations. (Futures of the Gentechnisch Verändertem Mais and Zuchtwachtein über vier Generationen). Proc Soc. Nutr Physiology 13: 124. Institute for Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Center (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
  36. Jenkins Helen, Nigel Hardy, Manfred Beckmann, John Draper, Aileen R. Smith, Janet Taylor, Oliver Fiehn, Royston Goodacre, Raul J. Bino, Robert Hall, Joachim Kopka, Geoffrey A. Lane, B. Markus Lange, Jang R. Liu, Pedro Mendes, Basil J. Nikolau, Stephen G. Oliver, Norman W. Paton, Sue Rhee, Ute Roessner-Tunali, Kazuki Saito, Jørn Smedsgaard, Lloyd W. Sumner, Trevor Wang, Sean Walsh, Eve Syrkin Wurte, Douglas B. Clock. (2004) Proposed system for the description of plant metabolomic experiments and their results. Natural Biotechnology 22, 1601-1606. According to the UK Food Safety Authority G02006: Metabolome technology for GM and traditionally grown plant material profiling.
  37. Jia, Shirong, Feng Wang Lee This Qianhua Juan Wuge Liu Yilong Liao Shuguang Li Wujun Jin Huipu Peng. 2007. Transgenic flow to hybrid rice and male sterile lines Transgenic Res 16: 491-501.
  38. Kılıc A, Akay M T. 2008. Three-Generation Research in Genetically Modified Bt Maize Rats: Biochemical and Histopathological Research Food and Chemical Toxicology 46: 1164-1170.
  39. Kleter, Gijs A., Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg and Henk J. M. Aarts. 2005. Health considerations for horizontal transplantation of microbial transgene genetically modified crops. Biomedical and Biotechnology Magazine 4 (2005) 326-352.
  40. Kleter GA, Bhula R, Bodnaruk K, Carazo E, Felsot AS, Harris CA, Katayama A, Kuiper HA, Racke KD, Rubin B, Shevah Y, Stephenson GR, Tanaka K, Unsworth J, Wauchope RD, Wong SS. 2007. Transition from the use of pesticides in transgenic crops and the resulting overall environmental impact. Pest Manag Sci. 63 (11): 1107-15.
  41. Kleter GA, Peijnenburg AA. 2002. Transgenic protein expression in transgenic food cultures to detect short amino acid sequences that are identical to potential IgE-binding linear allergenic epitopes. BMC Struct Biol 2: 8.
  42. Kuiper HA, Hub P J M Noteborn and ACM Peijnenburg. 1999. Compatibility of methods of safety testing of genetically modified foods. Lancet 354: 1315-6.
  43. Le Gall, Gwénaëlle, M. Susan DuPont, Fred A. Mellon, Adrienne L. Davis, Geoff J. Collins, Martine E. Verhoeyen and Ian J. Colquhoun. 2003. Characterization and content of flavonoids glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruits J. Agric. Food Chem 51 (9): 2438 -2446.
  44. Le Gall G, Colquhoun IJ, Davis AL, Collins GJ, Verhoeyen ME. 2003 Profiling of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) metabolite using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy as a means to detect possible adverse effects after genetic modification. J Agric Food Chem 51 (9): 2447-56. Release: 2004. J Agric Food Chem 52 (10): 3210.
  45. Leeserta, Satu J., Howard V. Davies, Louise V.T. Shepherd, Naoise Nunan, Jim W. McNicol, Seppo Auriola, Kaisa M. Koistinen, Soile Suomalainen, Harri I. Kokko and Sirpa O. Kärenlampi. 2005. Comparison of potato varieties, peas and genetically modified tuber proteins. Plant Physiology 138: 1690-1699.
  46. Li X, Huang K, He X, Zhu B, Liang Z, Li H, Luo Y. 2007. Comparison of Essential Quality among Chinese Indica Rice with SCK and Cry1Ac Genes and its Transgenic Equivalents. J Food Sci. 2007 Aug, 72 (6): S420-4.
  47. Malatesta M, Boraldi F, Annovi G, Baldelli B, Battistelli S, Biggiogera M, Quaglino D. 2008. Long-term study on mice in mothers fed genetically modified soybeans: the effect on achieving liver age. Histochem Cell Biol.
  48. Brown NM and Setchell DRC. 2001. Animal models influenced by phytoestrogens commercial chaos: effects on hormone-affected paths. Laboratory Research 81: 735-747. "All investigators should be careful about the composition of the phytoestrogens of commercial rodent diets, as larger animals and humans have a high biological effect in the history of circulating isoflavone concentrations"
  49. Thigpen JE. 2004. Choosing suitable rodent diet for endocrine disruption studies and testing studies. ILAR Journal. 45: 401-416.
  50. Malatesta M, Tiberi C, Baldelli B, Battistelli S, Manual E, Biggiogera M. 2005. Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed by genetically modified soybeans. Eur J Histochem 49 (3): 237-42.
  51. Momma K, Hashimoto W, Yoon HJ, Ozawa S, Fukuda Y, Kawai S, Takaiwa F, Utsumi S, Murata K. 2000 Rice Genetically Modified by Soybean Glycine Evaluation in Rat Investigations. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 64: 1881-6.
  52. Montero M, Coll A, Nadal A, Messeguer J, Pla M. Only half of transcriptose differences between resistant genetically modified and normal rice are transgene-related. Plant Biotechnology, 29 OCT 2010 DOI: 10.1111 / j.1467-7652.2010.00572.x.
  53. Peterson, Robert K.D. and Leslie M. Shama 2005. A comparative risk assessment for genetically modified, mutagenic and common wheat production systems. Transgenic Research 14 (6) p859-875. This research was funded solely by the USDA Special Research Grant for the Biobase Products Institute and the Montana Farm Experiment Station, Montana State University.
  54. Phipps RH, Deaville ER, Maddison BC (2003) Find transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in rinse milk, duodenal ulcers, milk, blood and lactating dairy cows. Milk Magazine 86: 4070-4078. Funded by U.K. Food Standards Agency.
  55. Ramessar, Korean, Ariadna Peremarti Sonia Go & # 39; mez-Galera Shaista Naqvi Marian Moralejo Pilar Mun ~ oz Teresa Capell Paul Christou 2007. Biosecurity and Risk Assessment System for Selective Marker Genes for Transgenic Cultures: Non-Politics Science Transgenic Res 16 : 261-280. This work was partly funded by the EU FP6 Pharma-Planta project.
  56. Rhee, GS, Cho, DH, Won, YH, Seok, JH, Kim, SS, Kwack, SJ, Lee, RD, Chae, SY, Kim, JW, Lee, BM, Park, KL, Choi, KS, 2005. Research into reproductive and developmental toxicity of a multi-generational genetically modified potato genetically modified potato in rats. J. Toxicol. Environ Health A 68, 2263-2276.
  57. Knudsen I, Poulsen M. 2007. Benchmarking of Genetically-Modified Food Products in a 90-Day Rat Feeding Study Plan That Separates Primary and Secondary Effects on a New Genetic Event. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 49 (1): 53-62.
  58. Lutz B, Wiedemann S, Einspanier R, Mayer J, Albrecht C. 2005. The degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Agricultural and Food Chemistry Magazine 53: 1453-1456. This refers to digestibility of insect protein, which is considered an indicator of allergic risk. The threat of an allergic reaction is one of the main concerns of people who are worried about the safety of genetically modified foods.
  59. Rank A, Linke B and Jansen B. 2005 RNA variants disclosed transgendered from Roundup Ready soy beans, European Food Research and Technology 220 (3-4): 438-443.
  60. Reuter T, Aulrich K, Berk A, Flachowsky G. 2002. Research on Feeding Genetically Modified Maize (Bt-Maize) in Pigs: Chemical Composition and Nutrition Assessment. Arch Tierernahr 56 (1): 23-31.
  61. Rosati, A, Bogani P (2008) 3 & # 39; characterization of the transgene insertion site and derived mRNAs of MON810 YieldGard® Maize Plant Molecular Biology 67: 271-281. G. Monastra provided MON810 seeds and isogeic control maize. This work was supported by MIPAF funding (Ministero delle Politiche Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali), project: OGM Agricoltura.
  62. Sakamoto, Y; Then, Y; Fukumori, N; Tayama, K; Ando, ​​H; Takahashi, H; Cuban, Y; Nagasava, A; Yano, N; Yuzawa, K; Ogata, A; Kamimura, H. 2007. 52-week nutritional study on genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats. Journal of the Food and Hygiene Association of Japan, 48 (3): 41-50.
  63. Sakamoto Y, Tada Y, Fukumori N, Tayama K, Ando H, Takahashi H, Kubo Y, Nagasawa A, Yano N, Yuzawa K, Ogata A.A. 2008. F344 rat genetically modified soybean 104-week feeding studies. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 49 (4): 272-82.
  64. Shepherd LV, McNicol JW, Razzo R, Taylor MA, Davies HV (2006). Assessing the potential for unexpected effects in genetically modified potatoes that are threatened by metabolism and developmental processes. Purposeful analysis of key nutrients and anti-inflammatory substances. Transgene Rez 15 (4): 409-25.
  65. Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y, Miyazaki S. 2006. Effects of Feed Chicken Genetically Modified Maize bt11: Clinical-Biochemical Study. J Vet Med Sci. 2006 Oct; 68 (10): 1113-5.
  66. Sinagawa-García SR, Rascón-Cruz Q, Valdez-Ortiz A, Medina-Godoy S, Escobar-Gutiérrez A, Paredes-López O. 2004. Safety assessment of genetically modified maize transformation and allergy in vitro with amaranth 11S globulin. J Agrican Food Chem. May 5, 2004; 52 (9): 2709-14.
  67. Schrøder M, Poulsen M, Wilcks A, Krogsbo S, Miller A, Frenzel T, Danier J, Rychlik M, Emami K, Gatehouse A, Shu Q, Engel KH, Altosaar I, Knudsen I. 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice, which expresses the Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) with Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. March 2007; 45 (3): 339-49.
  68. Scientific Opinion of the Panel of Experts on Genetically Modified Organisms[EFSA](Question no. EFSA-Q-2008-077) Adopted on 29 October 2008. SCIENTIFIC POSITION The European Commission's request for a safeguard clause referring to MON810 maize in accordance with Article 23 of Directive 2001/18 and an emergency measure in accordance with Article 34 of Regulation 1829/2003 / EC1. EFSA Journal (2008) 850, 1-45
  69. Sten E, Skov PS, Andersen SB, Torp AM, Olesen A, Bindslev-Jensen U, Poulsen LK, Bindslev-Jensen C. 2004 Comparative study on the allergenicity of wild and glyphosate-tolerant gene-modified soybean varieties. APMIS. 2004 Jan; 112 (1): 21-8. This study is part of BioRisk's projects supported by the Danish Medical Research Council and EpiPat, supported by the Danish Ministry of Food.
  70. Takahashi, H. Hotta, Y. Hayashi, M. Kawai-Yamada, M. Komatsu, S. Uchimiya, H. 2005. High Permeability Metabolite and Protein Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Biotechnol 22, 47-50.
  71. Taylor, J., King, R.D., Altmann, T. & Fiehn, O. (2002) Application of Metabolomics in the Discrimination of the Plant Genotype Using Statistics and Acquisition of Machines. Bioinformatics 18, S241-S248 (2002). United Kingdom Food Safety Authority According to G02006: Metabolome technology for GM and traditionally grown plant material profiling
  72. Tony MA, Butschke A, Broll H, Grohmann L, Zagon J, Halle I, Dänicke S, Schauzu M, Hafez HM, Flachowsky G. Bt 176 Corn Safety Assessment in Broiler Eating: The Deterioration of Corn DNA and Its Metabolism. Arch Tierernahr. Aug 2003; 57 (4): 235-52.
  73. Venneria E, Simone Fansca, Giovanni Monastra, Enrico Finotti, Roberto Ambra, Elena Azzini, Alessandra Durazzo, Maria Stella Fodda and Giuseppe Maiani (2008) The nutritional value of Genetically Modified Wheat, Corn and Tomato Cultivars J. Agric. Food Chemistry.
  74. Wakasa K, Hasegawa H, Nemoto H, Matsuda F, Miyazawa H, Tozawa Y, Morin K, Komatsu A, Yamada T, Terakawa T, Miyagawa H.2006. High level of accumulation of tryptophan in transgenic rice seed and its limited impact on agronomic properties and profile of seed metabolites. J Exp Bot. 2006; 57 (12): 3069-78.
  75. Weekends, Rebecca, Theodore Allnutt, Caroline Boffey, Sarah Morgan, Mark Bilton, Roger Daniels and Christine Henry (2008) Study on the crop and culture of genetic flow through the use of feedstock maize (Zea mays L.) in the United Kingdom Transgenic Res (2007) ) 16: 203-211. Funded by Defra (EPG project 1/5/138). Bayer CropScience has ensured the positive control of T25 maize seed.
  76. Windbreaks P, Taverniers I, Depicker A, Van Bockstaele E, De Loose M (2001) Characteristics of the Covered Ready Soy Bean Variety Eur Food Res Technol 213: 107-112.
  77. Zhang, Jun, Lin Cai, Jiaqin Cheng, Huizhu Mao, Xiaoping Fan, Zhaohong Meng, Ka Man Chan, Huijun Zhang, Jianfei Qi, Lianghui Ji and Yan Hong (2008) Transgene Integration and Organization of Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genome Transgenic Research 17 (2) 293-306. This project was supported by the Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, an internship scholarship. Although cotton is a fiber culture, it is also vegetable oil.
  78. Zhu Y, Li D, Wang F, Yin J, Jin H (2004) Nutritional assessment and soy-flour DNS destiny from Roundup Readiness or common soy beans using rats.
  79. Zolla L, Rinaldukci S, Antonioli P, Righetti PG (2008) Proteomics as an adjunct to the identification of unexpected adverse reactions resulting from genetic modifications of transgenic maize seeds. J Proteome Res. May 2008; 7 (5): 1850-61.
  80. Zywick Britta, Gareth Catchpole, John Draper and Oliver Fiehn. 2004. Rapid comparison of LC-ESI-MS / MS methods for detection of glycolic alcohols in transgenic fields grown in potatoes. Analytical biochemistry. United Kingdom Food Safety Authority According to G02006: Metabolome technology for the profiling of GM and traditionally grown plant materials.
  81. Ute Vogler, Anja S. Rott, Cesare Gessler and Silvia Dorn. Like transgenic and classically cultivated apple genotypes, non-organism organisms are exposed to higher trophic levels. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 134 Issue 2, Pages 114 – 121
  82. Coll A, Nadal A, Collado R, Capellades G, Kubista M, Messeguer J, Pla M. M. Natural variation explains most transcronical changes between MON810 corn plants and comparable genetically modified varieties covered by two N-fertilization methods. Plant Mol Biol. June 2010, 73 (3): 349-62. Epub 2010 March 27th
  83. Wiedemann S, Gürtler P, Albrecht C. 2007. Effects of Cow Feed Genetically Modified Maize on the Bacterial Community. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (24): 8012-7.
  84. Interaction of transgenic × environment in genetically modified wheat
  85. Is genetically modified and traditionally grown crops really different?
  86. Boreiss-Wysocka et al., The stable manifestation of Atacin E transgene and the phenotypic effect of apples grown in orchards over 12 years BMC Biotechnology 2010, 10:41
  87. Coll A, Nadal A, Collado R, Capellades G, Messeguer J, Mele E, Palaudelmas M, Pla M (2009) MON810 genetic expression profiles and cultivable comparable non-genetically modified maize varieties are more similar to traditional ones. Transgenic Res 18: 801-808
  88. Andreas Lindfeld, Corsin Lang, Eva Knop, Volfgang Nentwig, hard to digest or piece of cake? Is genetically modified wheat affecting the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus (Annelida: Enchytraeidae)? Applied Soil Ecology, Volume 47, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 51-58, ISSN 0929-1393, DOI: 10.1016 / j.apsoil.2010.10. 012
  89. S. von Burg, F. J. F. van Veen, F. Alvarez-Alfageme, J. Romeis. Structure of the parasitoid community of genetically modified wheat. Biology letters, 2011; DOI: 10.1098 / rs.2010.2010.1147
  90. Kusano M, Redestig H, Hirai T, Oikawa A, Matsuda F, Fukushima A, Arita M, Watanabe S, Yano M, Hiwasa-Tanase K, Ezura H, Saito K. Chemical diversity of genetically modified tomatoes using
    objectively significant equivalence assessment. PLoS One February 16, 2011; 6 (2): e16989.
  91. Jose L. Domingo, Jordi Gine Bordonaba, Literature Review on the Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants, Environmental International, Theme 37, Edition 4, May 2011, Pages 734-742, ISSN 0160-4120, DOI: 10.1016 / j. envint .2011.01.003. The report covers nutrition research from 2007 to 2010 (but was not included in 2010).
  92. Juan Y, Xu W, Luo Y, Liu H, Lu J, Su C, Huang K. The effect of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the rat fecal microflora over a 90-day supplement. J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Apr 26 doi: 10.1002 / jsfa.4421. [Epub ahead of print]
  93. Stuart J. Smyth, Michael Gusta, Kenneth Belcher, Peter W.B. Phillips and David Castle. Environmental impact on herbicide tolerant rape production in Western Canada. Agricultural Systems, Volume 104, Issue 5, June 2011, Pages 403-410
  94. Duan JJ, Marvier M, Huesing J, Dively G, Huang ZY, 2008 Bt Cultural Impact Meta-Analysis on Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS ONE 3 (1): e1415. doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0001415
  95. Sishuo Cao, Wentao Xu, YunBo Luo, Xiaoyun He, Yanfang Yuan, Wenjun Ran, Lixing Lianga and Kunlun Huang. Metabolic study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meals in a 90-day rat rat toxicity study. Mol BioSyst., 2011, DOI: 10.1039 / C1MB05076A (May 19, 2011)
  96. Helga Gruber, Vijay Paul, Patrick Guertler, Hubert Spieker, Ales Tichopad, Heinrich H. D. Meyer and Martin Muller. The fate of Cry1Ab protein in farming systems under bovine spongiform encephalopathy control. Genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) MON810: Quantitative assessment. J. Agric. Food Chemistry., Pants ASAP DOI: 10.1021 / jf200854n Publication date (web site): May 23, 2011
  97. Lin, B., Tan, Z., Xiao, G., Wang, M., Cong, Z., Wang, S., Tang, S., Zhou, C., Sun, Z. and Wang, W. ( 2009), Evaluation of the equivalence of genetically modified rice composition and nutritional value using traditional rice in situ and in vitro methods. Food and Agriculture Science Magazine, 89: 1490-1497. doi: 10.1002 / jsfa.3613
  98. A. M. Shelton, J.-Z. Zhao and R. T. Roush's economic, ecological, food safety and social implications for the placement of Bt transgenic plants. Annual Entomology Review, Vol. 47: 845-881 (release date January 2002)
  99. D.M. Olson, J. R. Ruberson, A. R. Zeilingers & D. A. Andov, Preference for colonization Euschisti servus and Nezara viridula transgenic cotton varieties, peanuts and soybeans. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 139: 161-169, 2011
  100. Fangneng Huang, David A. Andow & Lawrent L. Buschman. The success of a high-dose / asylum management strategy after the use of Bt crops in North America after 15 years. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 140: 1-16, 2011
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