Tuesday , October 26 2021

Found the original letter Galileo wrote to the Pope But claimed not to write


Galileo probe in Rome
Historians, or the history of science History or history of free art, economics, etc. In this age and nowadays it is no longer necessary to walk to look for historical documents in the museum anymore. Since the 4.0th century museum has developed a system for storing all digital data and images.

However, almost all scientists have deep hopes in their hearts that once, if luck, help and sin are not obscured by work, He would have found a document or letter written by Archimedes, Emperor Montezuma, or Phra Naresuan, which, if it is the original version, can reveal the text many truths that were not known before, such as Archimedes' feeling right after floating rules. Discussions took place between the Inca emperor, Montezuma, with General Hernando Cortez from Spain and the Phra Naresuan planning for the Iraqi war. What, if found, will make society better and understand the world at that time

Therefore, when Salvatore Ricciardo from Bergamo University in Italy, a scientific historian, visited the Royal Society in London on August 2. And looking for documents collected in the Society's archive, he saw a document with a length of 7 pages hidden in the library catathe, without looking back over the past 250 years.

Reading the ancient Italian language, Ricciardo knew it immediately It was a letter Galileo wrote himself. What contradicts the Bible teaching the Sun in orbit around the Earth. Letter of December 21, 1613 (corresponding to King Song's reign in Ayutthaya period) and the last signature by G.G. (from Galileo Galilei)

Because content has strong words and the author has taboo views, Galileo shared many letters to send to friends And there was a version sent to Rome who had entered a religious court in 1615

To date, historians have discovered that the content of the letter has two different forms. The first type has strong words The second type uses more polite words. So the question is The first or second letter is the version received by the Vatican The letter the Pope received His bishop transformed, distorted, and manipulated Until he looks like an offensive institution And, being heresy, the final result was that the Pope ordered the religious court to punish Galileo

But the discovery of the true original letter from S. Ricciardo clearly shows it The letter the Pope received was a letter that used harsh words. In the original letter, Galileo itself had scratches, changes, and changes. After writing the letter, Galileo was afraid that it would be punished by a religious court that had previously burned Giodarno Bruno because Bruno supported Copernicus, claiming that the world was around the sun. And sending it to a friend named Benedetto Castelli from the University of Pisa, read and ask the general people that this is the letter of a real original. Including Castelli's request to send a letter to the Vatican

This is a false claim. The most famous scientists in the world of this age, because Galileo was afraid that it would be burned alive, The handwriting analysis shown in the letter And the handwriting used to solve all the expressions confirms that Galileo is

In a letter written by Castelli, Galileo claims that religious institutions should not force or control scientific research. And references to various events Astronomy As shown in the Bible There is no 100% true because the author has prepared it to read the fun. Including change of name so that people with relatively small scientific knowledge can understand science so that religious institutions do not have the ability and function To judge the accuracy or error of describing natural phenomena

So the training in orbit around the Earth. So it is only faith Not true Because the world in the sun in the sun, as Nikolaus Copernicus had previously announced 70 years ago

By 1616, 52-year-old Galileo decided to go to Rome. To meet Paul Paul 5, who planned to report on the universe to the head of the church. And I hope the Pope Pope will follow the idea of ​​the universe presented by Copernicus. But Galileo was very disappointed As cardinals and priests in Rome still believe and adhere to the teachings of Aristotle, he also said that Galileo was trying to destroy religious institutions. Keeping All the Bible Teachings When Galileo invites them to use the telescope he invented to see the planet, everyone refused, arguing that it was time consuming. Because it is seen by the eyes of God since the birth And that Galileo claimed that Jupiter was a moon as a satellite Priests claiming it Astrology The Bible And Aristotle's texts never mentioned this moon, so when no text is mentioned These companions did not affect people. So it is not useful And if not good These moons are not true.

This logical logic makes Galileo the clearer The Bible is not a textbook of science. Not Written by Scientists So Different Teachings Therefore the Bible cannot be used as a reference in the academic circles Galileo also warned the priests to understand it The Bible teaches people how to go to heaven. But we are not told how the sky was moving

Even if he had clarified the Vatican's religious institutions, he still insists that Galileo is not respected. The most important person against Galileo was Cardinal Bellarmine, who was convicted of killing Giordano Bruno by burning both. This time, Bellarmine ordered Galileo to stop publishing the idea that the mobile world was And the sun is still Otherwise, it will be punished for heavy spots As Galileo has no evidence that the world can move And if Galileo would write or teach the universe t Because science must never attack religion

When Claudius threatened to severely punish Galileo then returned to Florence. At the same time, he was thinking of writing tide explanations. With the name "Dialogue on Ebbu and the Sea Flow" and be careful not to publish Copernicus' thoughts in any public place. Because he knew he had enemies Who are many powerful people Some people have deliberately destroyed Galileo's reputation, such as the German priest Christoph Scheiner, claiming that before Galileo is exposed to solar radiation. And this point of view Do all the illusions But Galileo still insists that the sun is real Therefore Scheiner blamed Scheiner for being very angry, but Reverend Orazio Grassi, who wrote an article on the comet character of the annual Astronomical dispute in 1618, claimed that the comet was circular orbit around the world. And there is always the same distance from the world. But far from earth than the moon, Grassi's thoughts were Galileo, attacking the absurdities and comets that Grassi considered to be the star of this star. Indeed, without any influence on People on Earth (Galileo did not know the origin of the comet.) The answer to these priests was so severe. Making the people who respect the society constantly become the enemies of Galileo When Galileo moved to work in Florence Who is in Tuscany The enemies of the Pope's Galileo are lucky to get rid of Galileo.

There is growing concern that the religious court will punish them. Therefore, Galileo wrote a letter to the Duke of Christ, the Duke's Chief of Death. And explain to the Duchy the relationship between science and religion (This letter was not published until 1636). At that time, the 52-year-old Galileo became ill with rheumatoid arthritis. And occasionally feel chest pain So, leaving Rome therefore, before moving to Villa Bellosquardo, near Arcetri, took a short rest at Villa Le Selve, Filippo Salviati, a close friend's friend. Much less But still interested in improving telescope performance And interested in studying the Jupiter eclipse phenomenon
Galileo Letter to the Pope
In 1623. Galileo wrote the book "Il Saggiatore" (The Assayer), which contains information on how to look for science that highlights observation. Hypothesis Quantitative Experiments And devoted a book written to the Pope of City 8, whose original name was Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, a close friend of Barberini who spoke to Pope Paul No. 5 to condemn Galileo as an unusual person.

After Pope Urban 8, he soon held the position of head of the church. He ordered Galileo to go to Rome. And praising Assayer's work, Galileo said he was writing a book about comparing Ptolemy's universe with Copernicus. The Pope suggested that Galileo writes the content objectively and must not blame the Bible. This will allow him to protect Galileo from public condemnation and Galileo should not support Copernicus in his eyes As Galileo has no evidence to support it fully

Galileo was very pleased that the Pope did not restrict the freedom of thought of scientists. And the expression therefore quickly returned to Florence and wrote a book that had long dreamed of being in Italian for the general public to read and understand. In 1632, the book "Dialog sopra i related to two major world systems" was opened. It turned out to be the world The first three symbols are Simplicio (Simplicus in Latin, meaning "fool") who believes in Aristotle's teachings that Urban Pope 8 believes the other person is Salviati, who believed in Copernini's teachings. Kass and the third person are Sagredo, who has a duty to ask questions. Let the first two answer And a generous person But finally could agree to Salviati

When the book was sold out, the Italian company warmly waited. The popularity of faith that Galileo has for people makes the enemies of Galileo even more angry. So he rose again And started Pope Urban 8 that Galileo wrote their offensive and offensive content. He also supported Copernicus' ideas, which were obviously correct. That is why the Pope made Galileo explain and accuse him of her heretic.

On June 22, 16333, the 69-year-old Galileo arrived at the Minerva Monastery in Rome to meet the Pope. After the Pope asked for mercy so that he could make a statement in Florence because you were sick and very old. But the Pope rejected the request Galileo had to go to Rome under his command. And stay at the Tuscan Ambassador's House in Vatican City

At all times, Galileo was alarmed in Rome in the face of the judiciary. But I hope deeply that Pope was the birthplace of Florence. So it is the same person as himself. And as a philosopher who thinks religion is important for all life. And it was an old friend. It is unlikely that a friend will act violently to a friend or, if happiness The Pope can support his faith At the same time, the Pope believed that Galileo Who is an old friend will not interfere with the Christian religion, that he is his head, but the book he read See that Galileo supported Copernicus, despite Galileo, who had promised to be neutral That is why Galileo handed over the original promise. And also made him a stupid clown in the Simplicio department

On the day of the conviction of the religious court, Galileo chose to wear white hem. What a Prayer Dress Light Leaves Because They Are Sick and Fear of Dying until Shaking Their Legs After listening to the accusation, he had deliberately kidnapped the offense. Initially, the Pope was not guilty of Galileo. But Galileo's enemies came to discuss and convince him. While he didn't change his heart, the Pope's judge forbade Galileo from spreading the belief that the world could move. And suppose the text written in the Dialogue contradicts the teachings of the Bible and also forced Galileo to accept it ให้ ทั้งปวง เป็น ความ คิด ที่ ผิด ลิ จะ จะ ุก ุก ุก เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ คำ และ ถูก สัน ตะ ปาป ส่ง ไป กักบริเวณ ที่ เมือง Wall ตาม คำ เชิญ ของ อา ร์ ค บิชอป แห่ง Wall

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Iena ลิ เลโอ ู้สึก ู้สึก ถูกก ะทำ iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena iena can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can can ก็ ยัง ยอม า า า า า า น Et ษา ลงโทษลงโทษ 22ร่ จนกระทั่ง ปี 1822 (หลังจาก กา ลิ เลโอ เสีย ชีวิต ไป แล้ว 180 ปี)

กักบ กักบ กักบ ิเวณ ิเวณ ค ค ค ค ใด กา ลิ เลโอ ง ง ง วิทยาศาสต วิทยาศาสต ์ ์ ง ง ๆ วิทยาศาสต ์ ์ ๆ ๆ

38 ปี 1638 กา ลิ วัย วัย ปี ชื่อ ชื่อ วัย ียบเ ียบเ our our our our our our our Sciences Sciences Sciences Sciences Sciences Sciences Sciences เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ เมื่อ ดวง จันทร์ นี่ คือ ผล งาน ดา ดา าศาสตดา าศาสตดา Enz อ ตา ใกล้ ือ ือ ือ เลโอ น น น ือ ือ enz enz enz enz enz enz enz enz enz enz enz enz ang ang ang ang ang ang ang ang ang ang ang ang ก ก ก ก ก ก นนิบัติ เลขานุกา ำ ำ และ นนิบัติ Milต่าง เช่น เช่น Mil Mil Mil Mil Mil Mil Mil Mil Mil Mil เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น เช่น นั้น บีบบัง บีบบัง ูป ูป ือ ือ วาม วาม วาม วาม นั้น นั้น นั้น วาม วาม วาม วาม นั้น

38 ปี 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 น น ทดลอง วัด 38 น น น ตะเกียง นั้น กา ู้ ะยะ ู้ ู้ วามเ วามเ วามเ วามเ วามเ วามเ วามเ วามเ

Cel เวลา ที่ ถูก กักบ ิเวณ ิเวณ ู้สึก ู้สึก ู้สึก อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย อาศัย หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ หลับ Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel หลับ หลับ หลับ Cel เลโอ ไป ไป ไป ไป ไป Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel Cel โรค ระบาด ที่ ร้ายแรง ใน สมัย นั้น บรรดา แม่ ชี ร่วม สำนัก จึง นำ สมบัติ ส่วนตัว ทุก ชิ้น ของ เธอ รวม ถึง จดหมาย ทุก ฉบับ ที่ กา ลิ เลโอ เขียน ถึง เธอ ไป เผา เพราะ ถือว่า เป็น จดหมาย จาก บุคคล ต้อง ห้าม

วัย ที่ ู้ ู้ วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วัย วิทยาศาสต วิทยาศาสต วิทยาศาสต วิทยาศาสต ์ ์ ์ ์ ์ ์ ์ วาม วาม วาม จ ิง ิง ิง ิง ิง ิง ิงจ จ น ความ สำคัญ ของ วิชา คณิตศาสตร์ กา ณิตศาสต เอกภพ เอกภพว่า ์์ ์์ ์์ ์์ น์ วาม วาม ู้ ต้อง เพ เพ เพ าะ าะ าะ าะ าะ าะ าะ าะ าะ อายุ มิได้ เป็น ใ ิง ิง ิง ิง ิง

สุขภาพ ของ กา ลิ เ ิ่ม ิ่ม ุด ุด วดเ วดเ วดเ วดเ วดเ วดเ วดเ กติ 42 ที่ 8 มกราคม ค.ศ. 1642 สิริ ม 78 ปี

O เพิ่มเติม จาก Galileo: Watching the Skies โดย David Wootton ale พิมพ์ โดย Yale University Press ปี 2010

ยก ส้า น

ป ะวัติกา ทำงาน ทำงาน ์ ์ าจา และ ะดับ าศาสต าศาสต าจา าจา าจา ะดับ ะดับ ะดับ ะดับ ะดับ าจา าจา าจา ะดับ ะดับ ฒ ฒ วิโ วิโ วิโ วิโ วิโ วิโ วิโ วิโ วิโ ศึกษา ศึกษา ศึกษา ศึกษา ศึกษา ศึกษา ศึกษา ศึกษา ศึกษา แคลิฟอร์เนีย

อ่าน บทความ "โลก วิทยาการ" จาก "ศ. สุทัศน์ ยก ส้า น" ได้ ทุก วัน ศุก ศุก

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