The bear, who, according to folklore, leaves his idea on Tiburtius day, rises after half a year of inactivity and is ready for immediate physical activity. Such an inactive person has never survived. Long before it became spring, a person suffered from disorders such as diabetes, kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and muscle wasting.
Now the researchers are trying to figure out how the bear continues. Or maybe there are berries that make it a metabolic magician? Knowledge of bear mysterious metabolism can cure human disease, many say.
As a biomimetic is called the study of physical mechanisms chosen as a result of evolution and an attempt to use knowledge to prevent and cure human diseases.
It is a research area where medical researchers collaborate, for example, with veterinarians, zoologists and biologists, as well as the growing field of research. Brown bear is a library of biological information library that is important for human health.
"We've got several TV teams and researchers from all possible disciplines," says Jonas Kindberg, Scandinavian bear project manager, who followed the bears in the early eighties.
– Even the European Space Agency, ESA, wants to know how it covers!
Some things are known, for example, that the bear is sleeping like many other funny animals. When bats and hedgehog go winter hibernate, they reduce metabolism and body temperature drops to almost 0 degrees. The bear, on the other hand, with a normal body temperature around 37-38 degrees in summer, reduces body temperature by just five to six degrees during the winter sleep, although the metabolism decreases by 70 percent.
In addition, a bear woman temporarily raises her body temperature when her fertilized egg joins the uterine wall. The bear also has a special cycle of reproduction with so-called delayed fertilization.
Bears are already mating in early summer, but first, fertilized eggs join the uterine wall and begin to develop. The human embryo does this on the sixth or seventh day after fertilization, but the bears are implanted in late November or December – depending on how many women are obese.
Two months later, children are born to a mother who has been completely inactive during pregnancy. However, she has no problem with giving birth or giving birth to children.
The bear collects energy and fluid from the layers of adipose tissue that it puts on during the awakening period. But with all the energy burned in the body, nitrogen-containing waste is created. Birds get rid of nitrogen in the form of uric acid, in the form of mammals in the form of urea, which accompanies urine from the body. But the only thing that leaves the bear's body during winter hibernation is carbon dioxide and water through exhaled air.
How does the bear avoid poisoning and die from his nitrogen waste?
So far, researchers have no clear answers. But there are theories that the bear somehow converts nitrogen waste to the amino acids the body needs. These newly formed amino acids can also be the reason why the bear loses only a small part of the muscle mass, about ten percent. Just as it is done, it is not yet known, but it is suspected that bear germs are involved in some way. Research shows that levels of amino acids do not decrease during the game, but that some amino acids change that supports theories.
No bear body inflammation
Another bear preservation factor, while maintaining the level of amino acids even during the winter sleep, may be the absence of inflammation. It seems that the bear's ability to respond to inflammation is an idea. Studies have shown that human inflammation can lead to low levels of amino acids.
Researchers, including the University of Orebro and the Karolinska Institute, have studied kidney kidneys and have seen the kidney cells undergo extensive changes during the winter sleep. Usually, the diseased cells had inflammation and cell death induced, but this did not happen. Instead, it seems that the kidneys heal themselves to some extent inexplicably when the bear has moved from his idea to the edge of the spring. If you solve the mystery as it is done, it could possibly help many people with severe kidney disease.
Bears wake up with kidney failure
A person would never do what he covers: to quickly gain weight, then do not pay for six months without eating, drinking and peeing. Perhaps people will die kidney failure, high levels of calcium or blood clots, muscle weakening, bed ulcers and skeletal scaling. Practically, bears also wake up with severe kidney disease, but are easily hiding in the open and the right ones.
Study: Metabolic Changes in Summer Active and Anuric Hibernating Free-Ranging Brown Bears. (PLOS ONE)
The heart beating was slow
Another body under investigation is the heart of the bear. During the winter sleep it affects 6-8 times a minute, providing a very slow circulation flow. If blood circulates so slowly in man, it would have caused, among other things, blood clots and other heart diseases. But not with a bear. When researchers explore the heart of the bear during the summer, it tells the normal and the ultrasound shows that the heart is healthy and strong. Again. If researchers managed to find out how the bear is, knowledge can help many sick people.
In fact, part of the explanation seems to be the berry that is most sung in the bear context: blueberries.
In spring and early summer, the bear is a typical wearer who eats most of what comes along.
Bears are opportunists, they eat what's available, says John Kindberg. There will be many ants at the beginning of the season. They can beat the idols, but in principle only during the calving season. If possible, take the reindeer calves.
Amount of antioxidants
What makes Scandinavian Bear's project so interesting for researchers from around the world is that research is done on natural bears. Otherwise, research often takes place on a captive bear, where they are not free to choose food.
Research on the interaction between bear and wolf has shown that the bear eats half of the victims of the wolf. But the most important food is blueberries and lingons. As soon as the berries start to ripen, the bear almost turns into a vegetarian pastry.
In autumn, when the final sprint of the bear, and it is about putting the fat layers in before winter, the Scandinavian bear – if it can choose itself – eats almost exclusively Vacciniumgenus, blueberries and lingonberries. Berries contain a lot of resveratrol and vitamin C, which protect cells from oxidative stress.
Energy consumption during the bear changes. In spring, it receives about twelve percent of total consumption, 28 percent in summer, and high calorie consumption in the fall: more than half, 60 percent, will get all the energy needed in one year. This means that the bear stops 15,000-20,000 calories daily, equivalent to 28-38 kilograms per day. In other words, the bear itself gets a lot of antioxidants before it gets into the idea.
The bear is omnivorous, but eats most of the berries and plants. And most preferred blueberries and blackberries. But lingonberries, cranberries and ryegrass are also good, bears think. Drugs, grass and oats are also sliding. In the spring, the bear also eats ants, larvae and ants. Yes, bears actually eat the most: honey, mushrooms, hazelnuts, peanut thistle and fish, if available, but can also participate, for example, in waste bin residues.
Hunting is often quite bad, so in the spring most meat is eaten when algae calves and reindeer are lighter than adults. The bear is often captured, such as a wolf. The findings of the dead animals are also good for the purpose of the meal.
Researchers believe that high antioxidant consumption contributes to bear resistance to winter without affecting health. But there are bears in other parts of the world that go into ideas without big beards in the fall.
Would people be healthier eating like bears? May be.
In a study conducted by bear-related researchers, people who had suffered a heart attack gave blueberries a supplement to the usual diet. It turned out that berry picking had a positive effect on blood fat compared to a control group that did not eat extra blueberries. There have also been many other studies that show positive health effects of antioxidants.
Text: JeanetteThelander forskning.se
The day earlier was called mainly in southern Sweden, on the first day of summer, thanks to the old annual breakdown in the summer and winter months. On the rope bars, Tiburtiya's day was marked with a deciduous tree.
According to the old folklore, the bear woke up and went directly to Tiburian day. The Swedish calendar day is a celebration day for changing seasons, and it is said that if Tiburtius Day was warm and beautiful, summer would be cold and rainy.
According to tradition, newborn baby bears are displayed in Skansen, Stockholm. Hälsingland said that "Tiburata, summer summer" and Värmland "Regardless of the time in Tiburtius, bears have to go out, the captain who plays at the top of the tent and the pike goes online".