Placenta Function Related to Brain Injuries Related to Autism (Representative Image) & nbsp | & nbspPhoto credit: & nbspThinkstock
Washington: Interfering with the stable supply of allopregnanolone (ALLO), a hormone used by the placenta during pregnancy, may leave the developing fetus vulnerable to brain injury associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a study has been launched. The study was presented at a meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies.
According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately one in 10 children was born prematurely before 37 weeks of gestation. Premature birth is the main risk factor for ASD.
Placenta is an essential and unequivocal organ that is common to the growing fetus and pregnant woman, supplying oxygen, glucose and nutrients and discharging waste. Placenta also supplies the ALLO progesterone derivative needed to prepare the developing fetal brain for life outside the womb.
ALLO ramps during pregnancy. When children are born prematurely, ALLO's delivery suddenly stops. At the same time, the brain is a brain region that is essential for engine coordination, posture, balance and social cognition.
"Our experimental model shows that the loss of placenta ALLO changes brain development, including the development of white matter. The development of white matter in the brain occurs mainly after the birth of children, so a change in placental function during long-term effects on the subsequent development of the brain is particularly pronounced." Anna Penns, Neonatologist.
The research team created a new experimental model in which the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the production of ALLO is deleted from the placenta. They compared these preclinical models with the control group and analyzed all brain imaging and RNAseq gene expression for both groups.
"We saw a change in the long-term white matter of the brain in male experimental models, and behavioral testing revealed social disorders and increased repetitive behavior, two signs of ASD. These men-specific results increase the risk of brain injury and ASD, which we see in children born to premature babies" Claire-Marie Vacher, author of the study, said.
"Our results provide a new way to create poor placental function: fine, but significant changes in the uterus can lead to neurological development disorders that children experience later in life," said senior researcher Dr. Penns.
"Our future trends in our research could include setting new targets for the placenta or brain that may depend on hormone replenishment, opening up the possibility of early treatment of high-risk fruits," Penn added.