How to recognize the symptoms of swine flu? How can not get sick? We asked the medical science doctor, the head of the infectious disease department, the physiology and dermatology, and the venereology of the NEFU Medical Institute, RS (Y) Sleptsov Snezhana Spiridonovna's Ministry of Health's freelance infectologist to answer the most frequently asked questions.
What is swine flu?
Swine flu is called the influenza virus strain. H1N1 In fact, this type of flu combines strains of birds, pigs and human virus. This disease does not hurt the pigs anymore, and it is dangerous to humans, just like any other type of flu, due to the formation of severe forms with respiratory damage.
How to recognize swine flu? What are the symptoms?
The A (H1N1) influenza virus is easily portable from person to person and causes respiratory illness of varying severity. The mechanism of action of this virus is similar to that of other influenza virus strains, and the symptoms of the disease are similar to those of a regular (seasonal) flu. The severity of the disease depends on several factors, including the general condition and age of the body.
Acute respiratory viral infections other than the etiology of influenza develop gradually, most often starting with fatigue and runny nose, dry cough, which then becomes damp.
The flu condition deteriorates dramatically, such as increased body temperature, headache, muscle and joint pain, light sensitivity, and abdominal pain and diarrhea.
How are they sick?
The transmission mechanism is in the air, all the population is at risk, more socially active, so as a general preventive measure, it is advisable to limit the number of visits (shopping centers, cinemas, etc.), quarantine measures are announced.
What is the risk of swine flu? Is he so aggressive and sticky?
Swine flu is more severe and pneumonia can develop from 2-3 days. In the first 48 hours, monitoring of the condition is necessary to avoid the development of complications.
You should also remember that there are the most vulnerable groups of people for whom this infection can be severe. Risk groups include children under 2 years of age, pregnant women, elderly people, people with chronic heart disease, lung and immunodeficiency.
Is there a cure for swine flu?
Treatment of the disease caused by the strains of the "swine" influenza virus does not actually differ from the so-called "seasonal" influenza treatment. Today, we have antiviral drugs against the influenza A virus. H1N1, it is oseltamivir and zanamivir, their effect depends on blocking the virus enzyme neuraminidase function, which prevents the virus from leaving the cell and infecting other cells.
Influenza self-medication is unacceptable, it is not possible to predict the course of influenza with severe flu, various complications may occur. Therefore, it is necessary to identify specific antiviral agents and, if necessary, appropriate antimicrobial therapy and other drugs (to prevent complications), additional tests may be shown – chest x-ray, ECG.
Patients with influenza require constant monitoring by healthcare workers, but unfortunately about 30% of patients in hospital are hospitalized – after 5-6 days of illness, leading to sustained pneumonia and other complications.
What should I do to not get sick? What is Prevention?
Vaccination is the main indicator of influenza prevention.. It is made by effective anti-flu vaccines that contain the actual strains of influenza viruses, includingH1N1, recommended by the World Health Organization in the upcoming epidemic season, updates the vaccine composition every year.
Vaccination is recommended for all population groups, but first of all it is intended for contingent groups: children from 6 months of age, people suffering from chronic illnesses, medical staff, teachers, students, service staff and transport. Vaccination is done not later than 2-3 weeks before the epidemic increases.
It is also advisable to avoid contact with people with signs of disease, to reduce the time spent in crowded places and public transport, to wear a medical mask, to wash your hands regularly with water and to wash them with a special hand cleaner, to clean moisture, to ventilate and to humidify the air in the room. Influenza A particles have a diameter of about 100 nm, but not individual virus particles fly into the air, but when sneezing, small droplets of liquid (a fine spray) are formed. They take four to five hours, they are delayed by the medical mask. Effectively inactivates the virus with ultraviolet radiation to deactivate the room's airborne virus by exposing the room to ultraviolet light for half an hour. Ventilation is useful, but you should not remove it with cold.
The right lifestyle plays an important role, it is good sleep, balanced diet, physical activity. Food should contain as many products as possible that contain vitamin C (lingonberries, currants, blueberries, citrus fruits, etc.).
Various medications and immunosuppressive agents (vitamin complexes, adaptogens) are used to increase the body's resistance to respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses, as a non-specific prophylaxis (as recommended by the doctor).
In conclusion, I would like to emphasize that the general situation with influenza is typical of this period, with the period of growth of acute respiratory tract infections traditionally occurring in January-February, during which time extra beds are arranged in hospitals for the treatment of influenza patients. The most important thing in this situation in case of flu is timely medical assistance.
RS Press Service of the Ministry of Health (Y).