Saturday , June 10 2023

Learn about electricity – why should not the batteries be fully recharged and emptied? / Article / LSM.LV


The world is working to improve the battery's ability to store energy. Kristaps Vitols, a researcher in Latvia, also deals with it. In the LTV broadcast, Cognitive Impulse, he says that battery life should not be fully charged and fully discharged.

How was the civilization's victory in return for electricity?

  • 6th Century BC in Ancient Greece. The yoke discovered static electricity by rubbing a piece of amber against a wool.
  • In 1771, the Italian physician Luigi Galvani observed that the rod was trodden in the leg when it was spun over it.
  • In 1800, the Italian physicist, Alesandro Volta, created the first electric battery.
  • In 1820, André Marie Amper understood how the current magnetic field is affected.
  • In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and laid the foundations for the creation of an electric motor.
  • In 1879, the American inventor, Thomas Edison, patented the first incandescent bulb.

It is said that, at a time when Faraday was showing a breakthrough to his country's prime minister, the politician asked if he had any use. Faradey at that time determined – I do not know, but I am convinced that it will be possible to collect taxes.

Meanwhile, in another science, the legendary personality of Nicholas Tesla went a different way – he had the idea of ​​making electricity free for everyone. The basic idea of ​​a Tesla reel is that an object in the city center generates electricity, but light bulbs or any other non-wire electrical equipment receive the necessary energy from it. The problem was that the number of users was very small. So, the Tesla reel idea at least now looks like an expensive and ineffective way to deliver electricity to consumers. Who knows, maybe the idea of ​​electricity available as a wireless Internet is not the right time.

Much better with James M. Maxwell making his ideas go to work. His idea of ​​how a moving magnet generates electricity has made a major breakthrough in the development of civilization. The magnet moves electrons like water. By the way, the exact same electricity is often used for such a comparison, and where there is water, there is also a current or current and all related units of measurement.

Basic principles of electrical physics

What then is the flow of electricity? These are electrons – small particles in the small atoms. Some basic principles of physics must be borne in mind in order to understand why electrons form like electricity.

Physicists illustrate electrons like balls, which, like any case, have, though very negligible but still attraction forces, but unlike others, have a very pronounced rejection force. Since atoms with no electrons also have other particles – protones, they interact with each other. Usually, how much in the atom do not have a proton, so much of an electron, and we do not feel any special electrical discharges. By the time, for example, when rubbing one surface against another, we get the electrons from one surface to the other, and then the number of particles changes, they begin to attract particles of other objects. And all of this can be measured as electricity.

Electric charges can be transferred from one surface to another. For example, this happens every time hair is emitted, synthetic clothing, even if it pulls legs on the ground and touches metal objects.

The electromagnetic field, on the other hand, determines whether the electrons will move as a bridging river and form a direct current, or will fly down here 50 times per second, generating alternating current.

Exploring energy storage

All types of power generation currently available, except solar energy, generate alternating current. However, only direct current can be accumulated. Direct current is the form in which energy is also stored in batteries, and the types of batteries are as varied as their tasks: to operate devices, to accumulate energy produced.

The way how and how long the batteries are able to store energy is directly dependent on the chemical elements in them. The battery charger, on the other hand, affects the behavior of these elements. "At the moment when we accumulate energy, some of the ions move from one side to the other, and electricity does not flow inside. When charging the battery, the ions align on the other side and wait. We connect the external load, and the current begins to flow in the opposite direction, and the ions move backwards. That's why they are at the second equilibrium point, "explains Kristaps Vitols, a researcher at the Riga Technical University (RTU) Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering.

When the batteries become empty or do not perform their task, they do not carry out the required reactions again, so the particles do not stand in the right places. "It's not okay to throw the battery all the way. Because then the ions have gone to the other side, they have settled in their place, and the longer they are there, the more they like to stay there. Then the batteries start to fall in capacity. It can not accumulate so much and can not operate for so long, "says Vitol.

This means that the battery should not be fully charged and fully discharged. "In one case, the ions remain on one side and the other on the other side.

Both these extreme points degrade the battery, "explains the researcher.

Not so long ago, it was believed that batteries should not be partially recharged, because then they figuratively remembered their condition and they were not at all trying to be full. It turns out – this is neither myth nor the truth, because everything lies in it from which the batteries are made. "Those built into devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, have no memory effect. In the past, there were nickel-cadmium batteries, which were remembered – if they were half-charged, then only half worked, "says Vitol.

In order to further improve the ability of batteries to store energy, the world does not make millions in this industry. In Latvia, Kristaps Vitols is one of those scientists who, looking for the best battery solutions, cares about them just like a living organism. "There's no electronics, just chemistry and science of materials, put together to make batteries last longer, better and cheaper. When they are to be transplanted, cells must be combined with schemes that take care of the well-being of each cell, "explains the researcher.

The wealth of the battery depends on the temperature, but in order to have electrons that they accumulate, they must be able to move.

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