The number of trials in barley in Israel rose in March, but three months ago it seemed that the numbers were slightly higher than usual. Now the local health institute believes that the country has a serious outbreak in one of the world's most serious illnesses – one that led to the death of an 18-month-old child last week.
The local situation is associated with the simultaneous increase in the incidence of dandelion measles in Europe, but the disease here may be in the "pocket" of unvaccinated people in some cities and neighborhoods.
What is a bait?
Massage is caused by a virus from morbiliviruses Unlike many other infectious diseases, it affects humans and not animals. Although effective vaccine against this measles has been established since 1960, measles are still prevalent and is one of the most contagious diseases with a 90% risk of infection with unvaccinated people. The virus is very infectious, because it can survive in the open air for a long time: if someone is sitting, squeaking or talking with the disease, infected droplets are sprayed into the air, which are then inhaled by other people. After the infection, the virus attacks the immune system; It is usually incubated 8 to 12 days before the onset of symptoms.
What are the symptoms?
Signs and symptoms include elevated fever, runny nose, coughing, red eyes and light sensitivity. Four to five days after the onset of these symptoms (which is typical of many conditions), a dark red rash appears on the skin. It usually starts on the neck and spreads to the face, body and extremities.
Rash begins as separate spots, but they often blend with rash that spans large parts of the body. On the third day after it appears, the rash begins to fade and starts to look like small, dense plates – hatzav in Hebrew, therefore, this disease is a Hebrew name hatzevet. At this point, the patient usually starts to feel better, although in some cases the course of the disease varies from country to country.
What are the complications and risks?
In addition to being very sticky, bait is dangerous because it does not contain any medicine. The disease can damage the respiratory and nervous systems. One third of the patients will develop moderate ear infections, diarrhea or corneal inflammation. Rare complications that can occur up to 10 years after infection are degenerative brain conditions, which cause serious and irreversible damage to the central nervous system, including mental retardation and seizures. One in 1000 cases of measles is fatal.
Why is there an outbreak now?
Massage comes only between humans and since an effective vaccine eliminates it, the outbreak is only human-induced. If the level of immunization in the population decreases, however, all vaccinated people, known as "herd immunity", are not exposed to the common immunity that is provided to unvaccinated individuals. This disease is then exposed to larger parts of the population and the risk of excretion increases.
The current outbreak in Israel is due to outbreaks last year in various European countries, which also show a decrease in the level of infection – countries frequently visited by Israel such as Italy, England, Ukraine and Romania. Since then, the number of European cases has risen to 40,000 and more than 40 people have died.
But the situation did not arise here, as some unvaccinated people were infected abroad and caused the disease to return home. The total male infections with male measles in Israel exceed 95 percent, but there are some densely populated communities and areas with much lower vaccination rates. According to the Ministry of Health, for example, in some parts of Jerusalem, vaccination rates are only 55 percent. As a result, the number of measles has increased throughout the country: from 40 cases in all 2017 to 1334 cases this year.
Is this the first time that Israel faces such massive increases?
In the 1950s, before the vaccine, thousands of cases were reported each year. Since 1967, when the inoculation became a part of the protocol of the Ministry of Health, the number of cases has fallen to decades. However, there have been other outbreaks. For example, in 2003, 60 young people from Israel suffered from bites in two weeks, and one of them died. The last major outbreak was in 2008, when 1452 cases were reported among non-vaccinated people in a few months, most of which were in Jerusalem.
How effective is a measles vaccine?
As with other vaccines, there are two objectives for mass detentions to protect people from infection and to prevent the spread of the disease and to protect endangered populations that can not be vaccinated for medical reasons. Two vaccine doses, which are part of the protocol, provide 97 percent protection against this disease. Shot is given at one year of age and again at age 6 as part of a quadruple vaccine, which includes rubella (German measles), mumps, and chicken pox.
What does the Ministry of Health do if there is a measles outbreak?
In recent months, the healthcare facility has monitored each case of infection, regardless of whether the patient was discovered in a flight, hospital, school or elsewhere. When symptoms occur and cases of suspected illness occur, a patient's blood sample is sent to the laboratory to determine if there is really a bite for massage. at the same time, the medical teams try to find all who comes into contact with the person and determine whether he has been vaccinated and what his immune system is. In many cases, the Ministry of Health or hospital doctors will call those who are subject to prophylactic treatment, i.e., inoculation.
The race to identify each case becomes more intense as the disease spreads. For doctors in Jerusalem, where there are so many measles, it is difficult not to care for the identification and treatment of patients. The Ministry of Health concentrates its efforts to increase the level of immunization in ultra-Orthodox districts by extending the time of admission to the Tipat Halav juvenile clinics. The vehicle belonging to the Natali health service has also taken steps to facilitate vaccination.
What other measures are being taken?
The Ministry of Health has banned unvaccinated people from hospital departments that are considered particularly sensitive, such as newborns, intensive care, oncology, hemato-oncology, etc. In addition, the ministry is considering to ban vaccinated children from schools and check that inoculation, which is now given to children in one year, can be administered on a regular basis for nine months.
If someone who is not vaccinated is subjected to hair, or can anything be done to reduce its intensity?
Yes, but one has to act immediately. Preventive care for the first treatment involves administration of a live virus vaccine within 72 hours after exposure, but a person who can not get the active vaccine can obtain an inactive agent that will produce antibodies against the disease within six days.
When should I vaccinate or update my vaccination?
The Ministry of Health invites adults who have never been bites and have never received two vaccine shots for vaccination. The vaccine should be administered in two doses for a period of at least four weeks. This recommendation does not apply to those born before 1956.
The ministry also advises parents who first received their shooting in order not to wait for the second dose until they reach the school age, but the child is immediately inoculated, as long as the four weeks have passed since the first dose. The minister also says that people traveling abroad who have doubts about their immunity are inoculated before leaving Israel, even if the vaccine has been fully exposed for two weeks. If they travel with a child between the ages of 6 and 11 months, the child should receive the first shaving before the child leaves.
People born in Israel between 1957 and 1977 are considered unvaccinated or only partially vaccinated, since only one vaccine was given and not received in these years. For such people, it is advisable to inoculate now.
Who should not be vaccinated?
The Ministry of Health claims that there should not be vaccination for the following people: pregnant women; person with high fever a person who has had an allergic reaction to the previous vaccine; someone hypersensitive to any of the components of the vaccine; and for people whose immune systems are seriously threatened.