Monday , September 27 2021

Enabling extinct species requires breaking ethics?



Ibex Pyrenees (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) is a wild goat species that was once commonly found in the Pyrenees in Spain and France. Unfortunately, this population, called by the Spanish people called Bucardo, has fallen sharply since the 19th century.

Newsletter Telegraph points out that in the second half of the 20th century only 100 people left the Bucharest. This animal was eventually declared a protected animal in 1973. However, it did not stop the rate of extinction of this species. In Ordesa National Park, Aragón, Spain – Bucardo's last place of refuge in its natural environment – In 1981 it was reported that only 30 people left.

Then in April 1999 a group of scientists caught the last individual buccard, the woman Celia. The researchers took Celia's skin tissue and frozen it in liquid nitrogen. A few months later Celia was found dead decayed tree trunk. In 2000, the buccaneer was declared dead.

Three years later, in July 2003, a joint Spanish-French team of scientists led by veterinarians Alberto Fernandez-Arias and Jose Folch, reportedly managed to restore the extinct buccal.

Jose Folch uses stored Celia cells. A team of scientists was injected into Celia cell nuclei in goat egg cells that were removed from goat DNA. They then placed eggs on the abdomen of 57 substitutes for mothers: goats from the cross between the Spanish ibex and the common goats. Seven births are successful in pregnancy.

Only one of seven pregnant goats was born to a Celia clone. Unfortunately, the cloned burger died only ten minutes after birth.

"When Fernandez-Arias picked up a new-born buccal child, he saw that the animal had difficulty breathing. Even if he received breath from relief, the Celia clone died ten minutes later. Necropsy surgery later discovered that it grew in one of his lungs the lobe a big and strong addition to the heart ", writes Carl Zimmer in the article" Revival "that appeared National Geographic (April 2013, p. 48).

This was the first moment in the species's original idea – the attempt to restore the extinct species – it was successfully implemented for the first time. Now, as technology evolves, species are no longer just a fiction. You can restore not only buccal but also other animals that have disappeared as a result of human activity.

What are the chances?

The idea of ​​an ancient species was initially studied at the beginning of the 20th century. This method evolves from the selective breeding techniques of domestic animals that people have used for centuries to create animals with desirable traits.

Encyclopedia Britannica points out that in the 1920s and 1930s, German zoologists, Lutz and Heinz Heck, tried to cross different types of modern bovine animals to rebuild aurocos-like animals (Primitive boss) – extinct predecessors of wild bovine animals in Europe. This experiment failed because it did not do the right genetic knowledge and methods.

Methods and equipment that allowed scientists to isolate and analyze DNA from dead animal tissue appeared only at the end of the 20th century. Thanks to these scientists, it has finally succeeded in identifying cows with the closest genetic similarity to Auroch. Scientists combine semen and cow eggs with in-vitro fertilization technology (IVF) to cultivate animals that are morphologically and genetically similar to earings. Then the animal was called Taurus.

Another direction that supports the species is the reconstruction of genetic sequences of extinct species from non-preserved specimens. Now the genome editing technology with the addition and removal of DNS pieces already exists. All these technologies have greatly helped scientists create genome genres that they want to turn on.

The ultimate key to management is the development of methods somatic cell core transfer (SCNT) in the early 90's. In 1996, this SCNT method used the cloning of the first mammal, Dolly sheep, and seven years later it was used to protect the buccal.

"It's just a matter of time and money, not a matter of technology," said Stefan C. Schuser, a researcher from Pennsylvania State University, quoted by Tom Mueller in an article entitled "Formula for Excitement" that appeared National Geographic (May 2009, p. 41).

Methods and limitations

There are several species that are listed, as well as buccal candidates. For example, the species studied is mammoth (mammuthus primigenius), passenger pigeons (Ectopist migrator), Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) to the African Stomach Rash Frog (Rheobatrachus silus)

Other extinct species are just a matter of time. However, although supported by high technology, we can not expect dinosaurs to come to life again as a movie Jurassic Park, because awapunah technicians also have limitations.

Carl Zimmer said that animal restrictions that can be turned on again are those that have disappeared for several tens of thousands of years and leave fossils with whole cells or good-kept DNA. Mammoth was extinct about 4,000 years ago and passenger pigeons disappeared from the point of view at the beginning of the 20th century. So both are possible.

Another case with dinosaurs, which is estimated to have disappeared before 65 million years ago. Natural damage to cells and DNA dinosaurs, which prevented scientists from reconstructing their genomes. This makes it impossible for scientists to turn on dinosaurs.

In the article "Do we need to save the extinct species from death?" Written Science journalThe journalist David Schultz says that three species are currently being developed for these species. The first method is the ancient selective selection method used by Lutz and Heinz Heck to revive the aura.

The second method is the cloning applied by Bucardo Celia. Unfortunately, the cloning method is only applicable to animals that have recently disappeared or are threatened with extinction. Mummies and passenger pigeons do not allow this method.

The third and most recent method is genetic engineering. You do this by inserting the relevant genes from extinct species into the genes of a sustainable species that is still close to their relationship. The hybrid gene obtained by "editing" is then implanted as a substitute for the parent or developed in an artificial womb.

This engineering method does not cause genetic copies of extinct species, but it is a modern version. He is still a modern animal, but it behaves like an extinct species. This is the method used for awapunah mammoth and passenger pigeons, said Shultz.

Another way is to rearrange the genome from scratch. "Although to date, the largest genome that can be produced is only one-tenth of the size of the mammoth genome," wrote Tom Mueller.

Reproductive infographics

Should termination be terminated?

In the movie Jurassic Park, John Hammond fled various dinosaurs to create his dream wildlife park. It can also be impressive if you can see a mammoth or sword-tiger herd in the ancient zoo. However, awapunah is not meant to be the same way.

"If you want to create a zoo, you should not do it," said ecologist Ben Novak, as David Sultz pointed out. "Awapunah should be focused on healing and ecological functions."

We must remember that extinct species, such as mammoth, are ecological in their time. When the ancient Arctic meadows extinct mammoth, its habitat is slowly converted into tundra fields and moss taiga, which liberates a large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

According to the George Washington School of Biology, resuscitation in mammoths is believed to be a slowdown in climate change. "The risky tundra has twice as much carbon dioxide as in all the world's forests," said David Sultz. The juvenile Padang tundra can also be restored to become a fertile pasture.

However, according to Carl Zimmer, it is actually more urgent to prevent mass extinction. However, the process will also cost a lot of time and time, but the urgency is low. Finally, Awapunah has driven us out of the big challenge that should be done: conservation.

And again, these extinct species have lost their natural habitat. Even if the ancient species can live in the new habitats, it also creates new problems. It is possible that engineered species have a virus that can actually destroy other species.

Another problem that arises naturally is the ethical question. Some people oppose this awapunah idea because they are considered to be alike with God. Therefore, the ancient Danish expert Tom Gilbert of Copenhagen University, quoted by Tom Mueller, gives us the question of whether to revive a species or not.

"If we can clone a mammoth, we can clone all who are dead, even our grandmother. But do we really want to revive our dead grandmother?"[]
Also read articles related to SPECIAL AWAPUNAH or other interesting writing by Fadrik Aziz Firdausi

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