Covid-19 disease, which appeared at the end of 2019, is responsible for a global epidemic for which no vaccine or treatment has yet been stopped. What does “Covid-19” mean? Origin of the name, symptoms, duration of infection, incubation, people at risk … What do we know about this new infectious disease?
The end 2019There were grouped cases of pneumonia in China some of them were fatal. January 9 virus responsible is identified, it is a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 responsible for a a disease called Covid-19. Symptoms, incubation period, illness, people at risk … Current knowledge about this new infectious disease that we have still not been able to stop in the world.
Covid-19 is the name given by the WHO on 11 February 2020 to a new respiratory infectious disease appeared in December 2019 in China and was caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.
- “Co “for” crown “,
- “vi” means “virus”
- “D” means “disease” (“disease” in English).
- 19 for the year of its appearance: 2019.
“We had to find a name that does not refer to a geographical location, animal, person or group of people” WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus detailed to avoid stigmatizing the disease. This disease would be transmitted to humans after the consumption of contaminated meat – bat or pangolin are the two most advanced hypotheses – sold Wuhan domestic market in China.
Learn more about the virus:
Manifestations of Covid-19 disease are now well recognized: they affect in particular the lungs, kidneys, nervous system (including psychiatric manifestations), heart, skin, digestive system and ENT. Unlike influenza, which occurs suddenly, a coronavirus infection “is done gradually over several days” points out the Institut Pasteur. Patients report symptoms that appear within a week and a fairly long healing time.
In France, there are almost 15% of severe forms from Covid-19. According to the French and American team work published by Inserm, these patients all reported to lack type I interferons, immune system molecules that usually have strong antiviral activity. The main threat of Covid-19 infection is its lung complications. Inflammatory syndromes have also been reported in some children requiring hospitalization.
Who are the people most at risk?
Covid-19 disease is more serious according toage (those over 65 are over-represented in deaths), sex (people are at higher risk of serious illness and have higher mortality rates) and presence of comorbidities. The the three highest risk co-morbidities In France, there are severe forms of Covid-19Hypertension, heart disease and diabetes. Insecurity is another documented risk factor.
The average incubation time is 5 days With the maximum duration is from 12 to 14 days.
A person with Covid-19 is contagious 2-3 days before the onset of symptoms and up to 8 days later shows the summary published by Santé Publique France on 8 July. In addition, approximately 50% of transmission cases occur in the source patient prior to the symptom phase. After infection, the patient may remain so Several weeks. In a collective resuscitation site, Facebook carers point out that patients’after more than 3 weeks of resuscitation are still positive “.
According to Dr. Gerald Kierzek “Healing occurs after a two weeks when you have mild symptoms. It is spontaneous, except when it is a serious form, and we are in intensive care, where we need oxygen, where we have pneumonia and where we need medication. ” It can also be caused by SARS-COV2 infection persistent symptoms3 weeks after the first clinical manifestations (post-covid syndrome). Asthenia may persist for a long time.
In France, several tests are available to check for Covid-19 disease. The reference element is the nasal RT-PCR test. People with symptoms are given priority.
No treatment with direct viral activity has been scientifically proven to be effective in combating SARS-CoV-2.
- Mild forms of the disease that do not require hospitalization: in case of fever, it is recommended to use paracetamol instead of anti-inflammatory drugs that can ignite the infection. Symptom progression should be monitored and call 15 if breathing difficulties worsen.
- For severe forms during hospitalization outside the intensive care unit: oxygen support, ventilation support and:
→ application corticosteroids (dexamethasone), anti-inflammatory therapy that reduces mortality in patients requiring oxygen support according to a randomized controlled clinical trial
→ application tocilizumab (anti-interleukin-6 receptor therapy), which appears to be effective in patients who need more than 3 liters / minute of oxygen.
“The number of reinfections reported is still anecdotal.”
→ anticoagulation with heparin which allows reduce the risk of thrombosis and embolism
→ Remdesivir: The medicine has been approved by the European Medicines Agency, which is not yet at the French level.
- For severe forms of intensive care : use of invasive mechanical ventilation (intubation) or even extracorporeal oxygen supply in its most severe forms and resumption of the three therapies mentioned above (corticosteroids, tocilizumab and heparin).
- Antibiotic : In the opinion of 6 June 2020 HCSP antibiotics are not recommended in a patient with symptoms associated with approved Covid-19 (out of focus of another infection) “due to the exceptional nature of the bacterial co-infection”. Antibiotics Azithromycin has been administered to several Covid-19 patients since the onset of the epidemic. Until the virological diagnosis of Covid-19 is confirmed and if a bacterial infection is suspected, HCSP indicates that there may be a prescription for amoxicillin.
- Hydroxychloroquine : “After initial observations of randomized cohorts demonstrating the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination, most randomized studies in France, Europe, the United States, Brazil, or the WHO study did not find this effect.” explains the Covid-19 Scientific Council.
- Lopinavir / ritonavir: No efficacy of lopinavir / ritonavir was observed in 4 randomized controlled trials in patients hospitalized with severe or critical disease.
- Sarilumab : This medicine has been tested in the United States. The companies stopped the trial because of the lack of effectiveness of the medicine and more frequent serious side effects.
• Covid19 vaccines
At the end of October 2020, almost 200 candidate vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed according to the WHO list using eight different technological platforms: live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, vaccines based on -protein units, vaccines from viral genetic material (RNA and DNA (never sold to humans), vaccines with a replication or non – replication virus vector and vaccines with viral pseudo – particles “virus – like particles”.
> More information on Covid-19 treatment and vaccines
Without confidence. “Most infected people develop an immune response within the first few weeks, but we don’t know if it’s strong, how long it lasts, or how it manifests in different people. There are also reports of reinfection.” points out the World Health Organization on 15 October, which opposes the principle of collective immunity as a means of combating the Covid-19 epidemic. “Until we have a better understanding of immunity to the COVID-19 virus, it will not be possible to know which part of the population is immune and how long this immunity lasts, not to mention the predictions.
The Haute Autorité de Santé states this in a report published on 1 December “The number of reported reinfections is still anecdotal. These clearly documented reinfections, which number about ten because they contain different viruses during two episodes of infection, were observed in relatively young subjects who did not have immunosuppression.”