2018-12-14 02:02:11 Source: Science and Technology Daily
History of science
Time is one of the most important things in human life. Since ancient times in China there was a slogan "one inch time and one golden inch". The famous British physicist Hokkin's popular science book, Short Time History, is popular all over the world. The popular Chinese song "Where is Time?" Is also widely sung, which shows people's attention and attention to time. Not only does happiness play an important role in everyday life, but it also plays a crucial role in scientific research. The study of such heavenly bodies and even the movement of different objects of the earth can not be separated from the measurement of time. Therefore, Master of Modern Science Newton discussed and defined time in his contemporary book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. He believes that time is "absolute, real and mathematical," and that the "single stream" is "independent of any outside", but it can be felt and measured in the movement of an object.
In fact, the measurement time after the movement of objects is a long history both at home and abroad. After the people were using timing methods at the end of the 1940s, such as solar arches, leaks, sandwiches, pendulums, quartz oscillations, etc., American scientists invented the method of time detection, measuring the transition between the energy level of the nuclear power plant. He then went into the so-called "Atomic Clock Era".
Atomic Clock is a method for measuring the transition frequency between a stable atomic level. After improvement, this time method is much more precise and stable than the previous astronomical clock and quartz impact clock. Therefore, in 1967, the International Conference on Weights and Measures decided to use atomic clocks to determine the basic unit time, which is 9192,631,770 radiation cycles corresponding to the transition between two transition levels of the only basic stable isotope -133 atom. Time is 1 second. On the other hand, since the end of the 20th century, on the one hand, strictly regulating the use of atomic clocks, technological improvements such as laser cooling and atomic capture, as well as sophisticated laser spectroscopy technology have had a larger atomic clock. To improve. This precision timing device makes timing more uniform and precise, as well as great convenience for scientific and technological research, modern production activities and people's daily lives.
In the 21st century, scientists not only continued to work on the accuracy of atomic clocks, but also worked hard to minimize atomic clock and save energy, allowing new generation atomic clocks to reach the chip's leverage, and the required energy is greatly reduced, thereby stabilizing. Once again, gender and precision aspects are greatly optimized and implemented at the commercialization stage.
At the moment, the atomic clock has become diverse with respect to the working substances and is no longer just a strontium element, but also lead, hydrogen, antimony, bat, antimony, and the like. The operating mode is divided into different modes, such as optical atomic clocks and quantum atomic clocks. The atomic clock has even broken through simple atomic boundaries and has begun moving towards the measurement of the kernel and individual ion properties. In this respect, it seems that the atomic clock is not able to fully cover its connotation, which is possibly referred to as a "particle clock," is more appropriate. A particularly important development is that modern atomic watches are not only used as an accurate time device, but also a new type of detector that allows scientists to explore the wider range of space objects and even topography.