A modern man with some DNA fragments from the neandertalized body has slightly less rounded skulls, according to a research published today that investigates Molecular foundations in the form of our brain's spinal cord.
"Our goal was to identify Possible candidate genes and biological pathways associated with brain globularity"Said geneticist Amanda Tilot of the Netherlands's Max Planck Institute of Psycho-Linguistics and co-authored the study Current Biology.
To conduct the study, a team led by paleoanthropologist Filip Gunz of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, based in Leipzig, Germany, combined a fossil skull analysis, sequence data from ancient genomes and brain images.
In addition, they used the fact that living people with a European predecessor would carry some of the neanderthal DNA fragments that were buried in their genomics.
Researchers have researched about 4,500 human beings identified the Neandertal DNA fragments and found that those in chromosomes 1 and 18 were related to the brain, which is less globular and therefore more elongated.
These fragments also involved two genes called UBR4 and PHLPP1, which are related to brain development.
These strongest evidence of the influence of these neandertal DNA fragments on gene activity was found in foamed experiments in basal ganglia and in the brain.
Both structures are involved in the preparation, teaching and coordination of movements, and in the case of basal ganglia, they also promote cognitive functions.
"The effect of these extraordinary Neandertal DNA fragments is really fine, but it can be detected due to the large sample size", noted Simon Fisher, Max Planck Institute of Psycho-Humorous Genetics.
This study is just "the first insight into the molecular foundations of globulence", because, like other aspects of the brain's structure, it is a feature that is probably influenced by a combination of many different genetic variants. Fisher
The authors of the study believe that future research on the discovery of the human genome will reveal additional genes associated with the global form of a modern human skull.