According to the Arctic Report Report of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of 2018, Arctic has been "the most accurate transition in history", given the warming temperatures and the melting temperature of the ice, and this change can be caused by the world of extreme weather events all over the world.
The annual report released on Tuesday states that the rapid warming over the last three decades has led to a 95% drop in the Arctic's oldest and thickest ice. This research is coming as the world leader in U.N. the climate summit in Poland, where they are discussing, or to take into account the conclusions of the October 2007 report of the International Panel on Climate Change.
The melting of sea ice is one of the most visible examples of climate change in the Arctic, and scientists say it can catalyze extreme environmental events around the world.
According to the NOAA, the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world, which melt some of the region's oldest ice. This old ice is melt-resistant and helps to keep the Arctic cold in the summer, when most of the ice melts, says Emilia Osborne, report editor and researcher with the NOAA Arctic Research Program.
"When observations began in the 1970's, we had about 16 percent of the ice cover in the Arctic [that] was very old or more than four years old, "she says Here and now& # 39; s Robin Young. "And this year we see that less than 1 percent of Arctic ice pack is very old, perennial ice."
Scientists reported a low level of seaweed in the Bering Sea, west of Alaska, in the winter when ice is expected to accumulate, according to a report. Instead, the Bering Sea lost the ice-skating sector of Idaho.
Without the sea ice coating, to prevent sunlight, the ocean will absorb more sunlight and the planet will continue to warmer, Osborne states. According to the report, the temperature of the North Sea is increasing and the level of the sea ice decreases at rates that have not been seen in the last 1500 years.
The depletion of sea ice does not directly lead to rising sea levels, but warmer ocean temperatures in the Arctic could be, as Robert Graham, a climate scientist at the Norwegian Polar Institute, says.
"This melting will not affect the rise of the sea itself, because ice is already in the ocean," said Graham Here and now& # 39; s Jeremy Hobson at the beginning of this year. "But if this leads to a bigger warming of the Arctic area, you can begin to melt Greenland's glaciers, which could increase sea levels," he said.
Along with ice shortages and rising temperatures, Osborne says that harmful algae blooms in the Arctic Ocean are poisoning marine life and affect the coastal communities dependent on the ocean to survive in the economy.
Arctic temperatures can also change the behavior of the jet stream, atmospheric currents that affect the global weather, Osborne says. The volcanic flow of streams can cause extreme weather events, such as last year's winter storms in the United States and the unusual cold snap in Europe this March called "a beast from the east" in Europe.
"As the Arctic is facing very rapid speeds, the flow of the stream actually slows down, and as it slows down, it creates these vibulas, " she says. "When we have this fluctuating flow of streams that can really survive, as we saw in 2018 for months at the same time, we have these very different air masses that reach different parts of the world."
The report also found that for the last two decades, reindeer and caribbean populations have declined by 56 percent, given the environmental changes in the Arctic. And the microclimate is stored at a higher concentration in the Arctic Ocean than in other parts of the world's ocean basins.
As the Arctic ice continues to melt, the discovery of new waterways in the North Atlantic can also have geopolitical consequences as countries compete for new resources, Osborne said. It could also leave the US northern border and Alaska more vulnerable.
However, the United States joined Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Russia, refusing to approve the IPCC report. President Trump also said he would lift the United States from the Paris Treaty.
Despite the lack of support in Washington, Osborne says scientists focus on the fact that they "adapt to environmental change" with this information so that people "get to zero", such as those living in the Arctic.
"I would not want to say it's too late," she says. "I'm not ready to give up hope."