A team of scientists led by Mohamed Sahnouni, an archaeologist at the Centra Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), has just published a magazine Science which ceases the paradigm of the cradle of humanity in East Africa based on the archaeological remains found in the Ain Hanech region (Algeria), the oldest region currently known in the north of Africa.
For a long time, East Africa was considered to be the fastest source of hominines and synthetic technologies, since until now very little was known about the first hominid occupation and activities in the northern part of the continent. Two decade field and laboratory research conducted by Dr. Sahnouni have shown that the ancestors of hominid have actually made the stone tools in North Africa, which are almost modern, with previously known stone tools in East Africa, which are 2.6 million years old.
These are stone artifacts and animal bones with cutting tools for stone tools, the estimated chronology of which is 2.4 and 1.9 million years, respectively, and is found at two levels in Ain Boucherit (Ain Hanech Research Area) sites that date from Paleomagnetism, electron spin resonance ( ESR) and the large mammalian biohronology excavated together with archaeological materials.
The fossils of humans such as pigs, horses and elephants from very ancient sites have been used by the paleontologist Jan van der Made of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid to confirm the age of Paleomagnetism gained by CENIEH geographer Josep Parés and ESR, discovered by Mathieu Duval from Griffith University.
Ain Boucherit's artifacts were made from locally available limestone and crunchy stones, and included blankets that were processed in shredders, multisectoral and sub-spheres, as well as sharp-cutting tools used for the treatment of animal carcasses. These artefacts are typical of Oldowana stone technology, known as the 2.6-1.9 million years old in East Africa, although slight variations have surfaced from Ain Boucherit.
"Ain Boucher, technologically similar to the Gon and the Old Greeks, the business industry shows that our ancestors came to all the corners of Africa, not just East Africa. Algerian evidence is changing the previous view that East Africa is the cradle of humanity. In fact, the whole of Africa was the cradle of humanity," says Ainhnan Hané, Project Manager, Sahnouni.
Not only cleaning products
Ain Boucherit is one of the few archaeological sites in Africa that has proven bones with related cutting and percussion markings in situ with stone tools, which clearly shows that these ancestral hominines were used by meat and the brain of all sizes and skeletal parts of animals, which meant upper and middle limb skin, internal removal and deflection.
Ishall Caceres, a clerk of IPHES, commented that "the effective use of sharp tools by Ain Boucherit shows that our ancestors were not just cleaning agents. It is not clear at this point whether they were hunted, but the evidence clearly shows that they competed successfully with predators and had the first access to animal carcass. "
At this point, the most important issue is who has discovered rock tools in Algeria. Hominid is still not found in North Africa, which is time-consuming with the earliest stone artefacts. In fact, there are also no hominines that have already been documented in direct connection with the first stone tools known from East Africa.
However, the recent discovery in Ethiopia has shown the early presence of Homo over 2.8 million years, most likely the best candidate for material from the East and North Africa.
Scientists have long thought that hominidine and its material culture have been created in the Great Rift valley in East africa. Surprisingly, the previously known hominid, dated 7.0 million years and 3.3 million years old Australopithecus bahrilghazali, are discovered in Chad, Sahara, 3000 km from the riffle valleys in the east of Africa.
As Sileshi Semaw, a scientist at CENIEH and co-author of this article, explains that today's quinine with Lucy (3.2 million years) probably crossed the Sahara and their descendants may have been responsible for keeping this archaeological dough open in Algeria, which is close the modern ones in East africa.
"Future studies will focus on searching for human fossils in the immediate sediments of Myocenic and Plio-Pleistocene, looking for instrument makers and even older stone tools," concludes Sahnouni.