Thursday , January 28 2021

No space race

Chang & # 39; e-4

Chang & # 39; e-4 moon land, seen in Yutu-2 rover, after this month before boarding the moon. (credit: CNSA)

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Unloading Chang & # 39; e-4 on the far side of the moon is a triumph of Chinese space exploration, reflecting the technological complexity of launching a satellite in orbit to the moon to allow Chang & # 39; s contact with Earth. China provided NASA with its space ship position so that its Lunar intelligence orbit could produce accurate location images of the landing of the Moon unloading ship and its launcher. This exchange, although not a technical problem, symbolized the reality that many do not want to accept for various reasons: there is no space race.

Although the United States worked with a number of iterations in future directions related to human space exploration, China systematically moved forward.

In the 1950s, after the opening of the first two Sputnik, the United States and the Soviet Union launched a large space race with the first few that ended with the Apollo program and the Eagle landing on the Moon's surface in July 1969. it did not mean the continuation of space competitions, but rather its elimination to the point that by the mid-1970s the United States was out of space space exploration until the Space Shuttle first flew in 1981.

Wander through the desert

Subsequently, space lawyers gained a great deal of frustration, as the continuation did not correspond to the excitement and expectation of the Apollo era. Instead, the route flew in orbit and went round and round. In 1989, President George W.W. Bush, with the Space Exploration Initiative, tried to restore the enthusiasm and pride of the earlier era. That noble work disappeared into the cloud of indifference to Congress and society. Space Space Freedom, now the International Space Station (ISS) Odyssey was a doctrine of patience and a false start before it began in the late 1990s.

The United States spends 2000 on work on completing the ISS and recovering from the second shuttle disaster in 2003. After this accident, the Bush Presidency sought to continue the human space exploration in the Constellation program. Unfortunately, the program was underfunded until space transport was transferred to retirement. At the time of the initial shuttle closure, the initial choice was to close the ISS shortly afterwards, but this decision was lifted with the pressure of international partners who had made a relatively large proportion of space budgets to the station to see it close soon after completion in 2011.

President Obama was looking for a more measured approach to human space exploration, with the aim of gradually moving to a solar system, starting with a trip to an asteroid, although later the asteroid had to be moved to Earth. Despite the proximity and previous visits, he did not return to the Moon. Mars appeared far away, but the problem of the near land to reach the ISS was raised for the Russians who were good at doing the money. At the same time, NASA signed a contract with a number of private companies to develop and deploy release systems and vehicles capable of carrying first-hand and ultimately crew members to the ISS. The result is that the ability to access the ISS without dependence on the Russians is almost solved. More recently, proposals for extending the ISS to 2030 or later have been submitted, but funding decisions have not yet been taken. This new termination date rejects Trump's 2025 fallen date, although this means that ISS partners still support this extension. Some may wish to end their contribution to ISS so that they can switch to other projects for which funding would not be available if the ISS continues.

For the United States, the space launch system (SLS) and the Orion spacecraft have been assigned a human space exploration related to low Earth orbit. The destination has changed several times, but now it seems to be the first of the Moon, and then Mars in the future. How soon it seems to reflect political rhetoric at different times: whether it is up to the speaker sooner or later. However, the reality is that there will be no Apollo type funding in the program, so the administration limited the funding of ISS in 2025 to free up Moon's mission funding. This approach reflects the earlier Constellation program, which funded funding for the closure of space transport and ISS and their funding for the new effort.

Today, China is seriously concerned about economics, but it does not seem to be surprised by the concerns about space.

New goals have been set when Americans will return to the Moon's surface, hopefully in a permanent place of residence. It all depends on technological development and funding, as the last of the fiscal years until the financial year has not been secured. The goal is to do great things, but fiscal commitments can turn it into a long affair, unlike Apollo, which took place in 1969 from the 1961 announcement to landing. Constellation was announced in 2004, but in 2010, Obama's modified approach to deep space was first asteroid. In 2017, President Trump changed the direction back to the moon again.

Although the United States worked with several iterations in the future directions of human space exploration, China systematically moved forward by launching people – or reconciled – into space on Shenzhou spacecraft from 2003 onwards. Small Space Station, Tiangong-1, 2011 The space station was visited by two commander teams and returned to land in 2018 in an uncontrolled return.

At the same time, China sent land travelers and riders to the Moon's surface, the last time Chang & # 39; e-4, which this month descends to the far side of the Moon. For China it was the "first room" because no other space nation was unloaded. In order for the event to happen, China also had to launch a satellite to communicate with Chang & # 39; e-4. China is also developing a space station to be installed in orbit, completed by 2022.

Why is it important?

Chinese space battles come at a time when China aggressively demonstrates its status as a great power in what they perceive as a century of humiliation. This belief has been diverse, and many in the space community believe that China's growth should, by definition, restore space competition between the US and China. The operational assumption is that the US cannot ignore this problem by implementing a more ambitious space program. This situation is exacerbated by China's statements that it wants to carry out future missions in the Moon and elsewhere in cooperation with other countries. China has already acted in cooperation with Europeans and other countries, such as the long-lasting Alliance with Brazil. The US Congress has restricted NASA to cooperate with China without prior congressional approval, partly due to technology transfer problems.

Earlier in the American culture there was enough song "Russians come" that the comedy film got this name. Today, China is seriously concerned about economics, but it does not seem to be surprised by the concerns about space. The efforts of former Wolf Wolf (R-VA) to promote public concern about China in the context of space competitions did not receive much traction (see "China, Competition and Cooperation", Space Review, 10 April 2006). This does not mean that China does not appreciate its achievements with the United States, which makes landing of the farce moon so critical that the US and the Russians have not yet been. This is an important marker of China's achievements, but its importance for Americans is less important.

The crowd arrives to see SpaceX and others starting from Cape rather than NASA. NASA will conduct human space exploration, but it reflects its relative importance in American politics.

Both the US and China are competing, but at a different intensity level than at the beginning of the space age. NASA, when accused of a lunar landing challenge, went on a virtual warfare base because time was crucial. Competition is still taking place now, but with much less intensity, as shown by the NASA budget section compared to the desperate early days of the space race. Space defenders have a long-standing conviction that the golden age of the Apollo program can be recovered, but the death of SEI would have killed this myth with negligence. The end of the flight was really the end of the future of space, which was provided by Werner Brown and the original space pioneers flying on the moon.

The effort of American space is expanded dramatically, as the reality of commercial spaces is moving closer to the dreams of space believers. NewSpace draws public attention as it is now more in public light than NASA. The crowd arrives to see SpaceX and others starting from Cape rather than NASA. NASA will conduct human space exploration, but it reflects its relative importance in American politics. Members of Congress (in selected districts) may lose their jobs if they are unable to properly support NASA, but no presidential candidate has lost the election that is lagging behind in space competitions. It is a reality: the Chinese race alone, but the Americans are moving more slowly. Others, like India, tend to join in the human space exploration efforts, but it will be slower. Shortcuts lead to failure, and the necessary technological and human resources must be created to succeed in space exploration in the long term.

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ISPCS 2015


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