The World Health Organization (WHO) is considered to be a century-long evil that depression has already become the third largest teenage case and is the second leading cause of death among 15-25 year-olds in the world.
In order to prevent the development of this mental disorder at this stage of life, children must be provided with socially-emotional skills so that they can better understand the emotions and stressful situations that can cause the disease in the future from early childhood.
The evaluation was carried out by specialists who participated in the Open Science Program for Depression in young people and adolescents, and was shown live on November 6 from the FAPESP audience. Every month, Fapesp is working with Folha.
"If children are better able to handle, understand and understand emotions such as grief, anger and fear, they will be much clearer and more able to deal with them and they are less likely to be affected by stress and other feelings," he said. Adriana Foz, researcher at the San Francisco Federal University (Unifesp) Clinical Neuroscience Interdisciplinary Laboratory, in video sharing.
According to Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, Professor of Psychiatry at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of San Salvador (FMUSP), most cases of depression and other mental disorders begin in puberty, possibly due to the effects of sexual hormones. According to him, during this life-cycle, the number of depression cases increases significantly, especially among girls.
"This gender-depression disorder lasts a lifetime. Children have a prevalence of depression of about 1%," said Polanczyk, co-ordinating the USP's Neurodevelopment and Psychological Research Research Center, and is the head of the Department of Internship at the Institute for Children and Adolescent Psychiatry. Same University Psychiatry.
The most common symptoms of depression in adolescents are mood changes characterized by sadness, melancholia and irritability, as well as loss of enthusiasm for activity that causes interest and joy, changes in sleep and appetite patterns, increased fatigue and the unexpected thought of themselves and the future .
Existence of these symptoms for more than two weeks and indications of death and suicide are warning signs that the development of a depressive image, which can occur only once, or repeated over time and cause depression disorders, experts explained.
"This set of symptoms does not always mean depression, but it is a warning sign," said Polanczyk.
The lack of knowledge about mental health, the fantasy that teenage years and youth are excellent stages of life, and therefore they do not have the ability to suppress or distort that depression is a synonym of weakness, so it is difficult to determine the diagnosis and hence the treatment of the disease, participants pointed out. .
"Depression is the vulnerability that some people have caused to the neurochemical imbalance that needs to be identified and treated. The shorter the time it takes, the better for the patient, who will have less difficulty throughout life," said Sandra Scivoletto, a psychiatry department for children and adolescent psychiatry Professor FMUSP. The researcher is responsible for the academic management of the child and adolescent psychiatric service and for the residence of children and adolescent psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry of the FMUSP.
The role of school
Some risk factors for the development of depression and other mental disorders in adolescents are prone intimidation – repeated cases of intimidation and physical or psychological abuse, as well as violence against drugs, as well as the situation of violence in society.
However, one of the most important factors is the rejection or social exclusion, researchers said. Some studies suggest that loneliness has a significant impact on young people and increases the risk of mental health problems, said Polanczyk.
"A teenager, thanks to all the processes he survives at this stage of life, needs a group that identifies and perceives affiliation. He is much more susceptible to social deviations than an adult and child," he said.
As the school is recognized as a common learning area, in addition to the traditional place of admission, it can play an important role in helping children and teens develop emotional skills, participants said.
"The commitment to securing a school all places the institution and everyone with an experience of coexistence to address the intolerance and the specific exclusion processes that take place." School is a very rich place to meet and create spaces for socialization, "said Maria Cristina Gonçalves Vicentin, a psychologist and social psychologist Graduate Program in the Department of Humanities and Health Sciences at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Sao Paulo Paulo (PUC-SP).
Some types of school can help prevent adolescent depression by talking openly about these and other mental health problems, develop conflict prevention skills to manage stress and strengthen socialization bonds. It is also important to combat risk factors, for example intimidation physical and virtual – social networks – and know how to detect signs of depression.
"The school is not a place to diagnose teenage depression, but the teacher can identify a student who has some difficulty, and indicate a specialist's assessment," said Scivoletto.
However, teachers need support to develop skills to discuss depression in the classroom, and other dialogue actors, such as the family and society, have to participate in this dialogue, said Vincente.
"We know that support for the development of social and emotional skills and the provision of a supportive community structure in the broader sense of the community are important factors contributing to the persistence of adolescents who are able to cope in difficult situations and deal with stress," said Scivoletto
"Without this support, the teenager only feels confronted with a difficult situation, and this can create a desperate situation and at that moment he takes an attitude that can be in a final situation in a temporary situation," he explained.