By actively feeding a black hole, something strange can be observed: huge plasma shots from its poles, at speeds approaching the speed of light.
Given the intense interaction of gravity in the game, just as these nozzles form a secret. But now, with the help of computer simulations, a team of physicists has come to the answer – particles that appear to be the "negative energy" extraction energy from the black hole and divert it to the nozzles.
And for the first time, this theory has combined two distinct and seemingly incompatible theories of how energy can be obtained from a black hole.
The first is called the Blandford-Znajek process and describes how the black hole magnetic field can be used to extract energy from its rotation.
As the material storage disk is getting closer to the horizon of the event, the theory indicates that it is growing magnetically, creating a magnetic field. In this field, the black hole acts as a spinning conductor that creates a tension between the posts and the equator; this voltage is removed from the poles as a jet.
The second is called the Penrose process and is based on impulse retention, not magnetism. The black hole rotation energy is located not inside the horizon of events, but also in a region outside of what is called the ergotfire, which comes into contact with the horizon of events at the posts.
According to the Penrose process, if an object within this region, a spatula, with one piece caught against a black hole and the other from the outside, against a black hole rotation, the outer piece will appear with more energy from the rotation. This creates "negative energy".
Both of these scenarios are convincing, but so far we are not sure about the right answer.
"How can the black hole rotation energy be obtained to make the jet?" said theoretical physicist Kyle Parfrey from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. "It's been a matter of a long time."
The team developed a collective plasma simulation (in which particle collisions do not matter) in the presence of a black hole in the strong gravity field. They also formed the formation of electron-positron pairs in electric fields, which enabled more realistic plasma densities.
The resulting simulation naturally created the Blandford-Znajek process – electrons and positons that move in the opposite direction around the black hole, generating energy in the electromagnetic field that squeezes out the poles as nozzles.
But that's it also produced by the Penrose process. Because of the relativistic effects, some particles seemed to have "negative energy" when they disappeared into the black hole, which slowed down the black hole rotation, only a small part.
"If you were right next to a particle, you wouldn't see anything strange about it. But a remote observer seems to have a negative energy," said Parfrey. New scientist.
"You are left with this strange case when it falls into a black hole, it will reduce mass and rotation."
The effect did not really make a big contribution to the overall energy extraction, Parfrey noted, but it is possible that it is somehow related to the electric currents that draw magnetic fields.
Simulation also lacks some components, such as a storage disk, and the physics of positron-electron creation is not as detailed as it could be. The team will work to develop a more realistic simulation to further explore the process.
"We look forward to a more consistent picture of the whole issue," said Parfrey.
Team research is published in the journal Physical Inspection Letters, and can be read completely by arXiv.