Nemo, glorious clown fish in the movie Finding Nemo, rubbing himself throughout the anemone he lives to keep it from the livelock and eating him like the most fish. According to a new study, rubbing leads to a change in the microbes that cover clownfish.
Taking bacterial coose that is common with anemones can help clownfish cozily nest anemones' venomous tangibles, a weird symbiosis that scientists around the world, including now from the team of the Georgia Institute of Technology, have been trying to invent for decades. Marine researchers have been studying microbes clown for mixed fish and mixed with fish killing anemones.
"It's an iconic mutualism between business and partner, and we knew that microbes are on every surface of each animal," said Frans Stewart, Associate Professor at Georgia's Tech School of Biology. "In this particular interaction, these surfaces are coated with the little things microbes love to eat: mucus."
Clownfish and anemones swap a lot of mucus when they rub. So, the researchers received clownfish and anemones together and analyzed microbes in the mucus that surrounded the fish, if they were anemones and when they were not.
"Their microbial changes changed," said Zoe Pratte, a research scientist at the Stewart Laboratory and the first author of the new study. "The two bacteria that we traced increased especially when faced with anemones."
"Additionally, there was an enormous change," said Stewart, a research researcher. "If I looked at the common microbial complex, they looked quite different to the clown fish that the anemone had taken and what was not."
For eight weeks, eight clown fishes were tested in six fish tanks for eight weeks to eclipse their mucus and identify germs using a gene sequence. They published their results in a magazine Coral reefs. The research was funded by the Simon Foundation.
questions and answers
Here are some questions and answers about the experiment, which created some amusing anecdotes, as well as fascinating facts about anemones and clown fish. For example: fish peeling anemones make it stronger. Clownfish will change the gender. And it was especially hard to get one fish explorer named "Houdini."
Does this solve the mystery of this bizarre symbiosis?
No, but it's a new approach to the clown-anemone problem.
"This is the first step in asking the question:" Is it part of a changing microbial relationship? ", Said Stewart. The study responded to the clownfish side, which was" yes. "
An earlier hypothesis was the problem that clownfish mucus was too thick to spill through. Current ideas believe that mucus exchange also includes clownfish with anemone antigens, i.e. the same immune protein, or that fish and fish killer can exchange chemical messages.
"Anemone can recognize a clone of a clown for fish that keeps it from bones," Stewart said. "And it could contain microbes. Microbes are great chemists."
In the future, researchers want to analyze mucus chemistry. They also do not yet know how much fish microbes change because of the bacteria that fish gets from anemone. It is possible that the fish mucus microbial is only different from the fish due to contact.
What do you do anemones to catch?
Kill them and eat them.
"Anemone evolved to destroy the fish. It kills the small poisonous fish in the skin to kill it, then drag it into your mouth," said Stewart. "Clown fish go out with live well in it."
Incidentally, tentacles are not harmful to humans.
"If you touch anemone, it seems that they're swirling their finger," Pratte said. "Their little harpoons feel they're sticking to you. It will not hurt."
What anemones and clownfish get out of relationships?
For starters, they protect each other from potential victims. But there is a lot more. Some clownfish even change the gender of living an anemone.
"When they begin to live, fish form a great development switch," said Stewart. "The first group of fish that emerges from the anemone in the wild by switching from male to female grows much larger and becomes a dominant member of the group."
She is then the only woman in a smaller male adolescent school.
Anemones appear to grow larger and healthier, partly because clownfish urinates on them.
"When the bark of the fish, algae's anemone takes up nitrogen, then release the sugars that feed the anemone and make it grow," said Pratte. "Sometimes fish eats food and it falls into an anemone who eats it."
Any fun jokes from this experiment?
Lot of. It was scientifically simple but labor-intensive, at the same time, the researchers carefully looked after fish.
"You need to collect fish and anemones and fish can go elsewhere, like rocks," Pratte said.
"Quiet fish are smarter than other fish, so it's harder to fish, especially if we want to reduce animal stress," said Alicia Cauhman, a graduate student assistant at the School of Biology School's Fast Track to Research program. "We named one fish" Houdini. "He could cuddle between the nets and the tight spot and usually surprised him who tried to catch him."
"We also had" bubbles "that blew big bubbles, Biggie and Smalls, Broad, Sheila, Earl and Flounder, who liked the flop," Pratte said. Quiet fish in different sizes and details will be deleted, allowing people to distinguish it.
The anemone side of a microbiological issue may prove to be more difficult to answer, because for all Houdini's spirits, anemones, who are the most intact invertebrates, are still trying. They can squeeze inconvenient niches or attach aquarium drainage, and they also have temperature microbumes.